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Remote sensing data for different scales


I'm looking for different satellite data concerning different scales. The first one I'm looking for is remote data for soil sealing and water bodies at a scale of 1:30,000, could be generally everywhere. The other one I'm looking for is for data with Mapping of parks in urban areas and the sub-classes: lawn, bushes, trees, tree groups, water bodies, lane (sealed) and lane (unsealed) at a scale of 1:5000. I was checking the page of USGS but it doesnt really provide a lot of satelitte data for the scales I am looking for. Could anybody recommend some descent pages where I can get this images without have to pay too high amounts to get the info?


As stated above, I'd try USGS Earth Explorer for data in the US. Your scales are pretty large. Especially 1:5000, for which you could look for 'Hi-Res Orthoimagery' with Earth Explorer. USDA NAIP imagery exists for almost everywhere in the US at 1 meter resolution. Historical imagery can be found on Earth Explorer as well. You could use the National Hydrography Dataset as well, for locating waterbodies (1:24000). National Land Cover Dataset may also be a resource you're interested in.

Hi res imagery may exist from your county, depending on where you are, so you might look in to that, though they sometimes charge you and don't make it publicly available.

You aren't looking for imagery with a specific scale of 1:30,000, it's just that you are trying to find imagery that has a spatial resolution that suits your needs. Check this page from ESRI and this page from NOAA. It's about what you need to get from the imagery and at what scale.

Earth Explorer allows you to select an area of interest. Then, click the 'data sets' tab, and choose the 'aerial imagery' drop down. you'll be given lots of options. Each option has a little info icon that can tell you more about the type of imagery. Choose some that you think will work and see if they are available for your area by clicking the 'results' tab. Like I said the NAIP JPG2000 might be of interest to you, as well as high the 'high resolution orthoimagery' tab. This is my first stop for general imagery.


Satellite imagery is generally not labelled according to potential mapping scale, due to the indirect relationship between the two concepts.

WR Tobler's rule of thumb is "divide the denominator of the map scale by 1,000 to get the detectable size in meters. The resolution is one half of this amount." For your scales, that would mean 2.5m resolution imagery for 1:5000 and 15m resolution for 1:30000.

As for freely available data, only a few countries provide such 2m resolution data, while the 15m resolution data could be pansharpend Landsat data. It is generally western countries that provide high resolution data freely to their citizens (and sometimes to everyone). USA has lots of data easily available, while the European countries have more convoluted data access schemes.

If your area of interest is not in one of the western countries that provide the high resolution data, you'll have to get it from commercial providers, such as DigitalGlobe or Airbus D&S, with prices in the range of 10 euro to 16 usd per square kilometer.


Book Detail: Remote Sensing & GIS Applications

Remote sensing and GIS techniques can be used for generating development plans for the watershed area in consonance with the production potential and limitation of terrain resources, and can also be used for assessing the impact of these measures before actual implementation in the field.

Language: English

Author: Dr. K N Tiwari, Dr. C Chatterjee, Prof. N K Gontia, Dr. Susanta Kumar Jena

Price: Free


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International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition. ed. / James D Wright. Vol. 10 Oxford : Elsevier Inc., 2015. p. 64-68.

Research output : Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding › Chapter

T1 - Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing

N2 - Remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) analysis involves the use of technology to gather, manipulate, and analyze spatial data to understand a range of phenomena. Remote sensing entails obtaining information about the Earth's surface by examining data acquired by a device, which is at a distance from the surface, most often satellites orbiting the earth and airplanes. GIS are computer-based systems that are used to capture, store, analyze, and display geographic information. These two approaches are used widely, often together, to assess natural resources and monitor environmental changes. Social scientists can gain insights into fine spatial and temporal dynamics of a range of social phenomena in environmental contexts by analyzing time series of remote sensing data, by linking remote sensing to socioeconomic data using GIS, and developing with these data a range of digital models and analyses. This article examines remote sensing and GIS in general, with an emphasis on the former, and then explores how these approaches may be used together to address a range of issues. It also emphasizes the role of remote sensing and GIS for use by social scientists engaged in the environmental and ecological scholarship.

AB - Remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) analysis involves the use of technology to gather, manipulate, and analyze spatial data to understand a range of phenomena. Remote sensing entails obtaining information about the Earth's surface by examining data acquired by a device, which is at a distance from the surface, most often satellites orbiting the earth and airplanes. GIS are computer-based systems that are used to capture, store, analyze, and display geographic information. These two approaches are used widely, often together, to assess natural resources and monitor environmental changes. Social scientists can gain insights into fine spatial and temporal dynamics of a range of social phenomena in environmental contexts by analyzing time series of remote sensing data, by linking remote sensing to socioeconomic data using GIS, and developing with these data a range of digital models and analyses. This article examines remote sensing and GIS in general, with an emphasis on the former, and then explores how these approaches may be used together to address a range of issues. It also emphasizes the role of remote sensing and GIS for use by social scientists engaged in the environmental and ecological scholarship.


Remote sensing, geographical information system and spatial analysis for schistosomiasis epidemiology and ecology in Africa

Beginning in 1970, the potential of remote sensing (RS) techniques, coupled with geographical information systems (GIS), to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis in Africa, has steadily grown. In our current review, working definitions of RS, GIS and spatial analysis are given, and applications made to date with RS and GIS for the epidemiology and ecology of schistosomiasis in Africa are summarised. Progress has been made in mapping the prevalence of infection in humans and the distribution of intermediate host snails. More recently, Bayesian geostatistical modelling approaches have been utilized for predicting the prevalence and intensity of infection at different scales. However, a number of challenges remain hence new research is needed to overcome these limitations. First, greater spatial and temporal resolution seems important to improve risk mapping and understanding of transmission dynamics at the local scale. Second, more realistic risk profiling can be achieved by taking into account information on people's socio-economic status furthermore, future efforts should incorporate data on domestic access to clean water and adequate sanitation, as well as behavioural and educational issues. Third, high-quality data on intermediate host snail distribution should facilitate validation of infection risk maps and modelling transmission dynamics. Finally, more emphasis should be placed on risk mapping and prediction of multiple species parasitic infections in an effort to integrate disease risk mapping and to enhance the cost-effectiveness of their control.


Remote sensing data for different scales - Geographic Information Systems

Auracle is an industry leader in remote sensing and geospatial technology and specializes in the acquisition, analysis, and production of spatial data. Our global clients in the mining, oil & gas, forestry and agricultural industries have come to rely on our expertise to acquire, analyze, and visualize their geographic information.

Satellite Image Processing

Spatial Analysis and Interpretation

Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

SATELLITE AND AIRBORNE IMAGE ACQUISITION

Auracle provides a full satellite data acquisition service. We assess the satellite image data needs specific to your application and check archives for existing matches in the spatial, textural and spectral resolution your project requires. If the data you need doesn't exist in archive form, we arrange customized data collection, including airborne and satellite sensor mission tasking.

We gather all relevant and available topographic, geological and geographic data for the area of interest.

Auracle is a licensed DigitalGlobe reseller.

Please contact us here to order satellite images.

SATELLITE IMAGE PROCESSING

We use advanced image processing techniques to extract valuable information from satellite images and aerial photos. Auracle can integrate geospatial information acquired with different spatial and spectral resolutions to produce fused data that contains more detailed information than each of the sources individually.

Our image processing services include:

SATELLITE IMAGE INTERPRETATION

Auracle goes beyond simple technical processing to perform complex satellite image analysis to fully model and analyze your spatial data. Our methods extract features and information that is not typical or obvious. We conduct structural, lineament and fracture analysis on exposed and buried bedrock.

This is a series of derivatives that show how stereoscopic radar reveals the structure of underlying rock which is buried in overburden and covered by vegetation.

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

Auracle uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to manage, analyze and model a range of spatial information in a single, comprehensive system. We convert geospatial data from multiple sources with different scales and quality into a unified GIS so you can query specific locations or extracted features by linking the GIS with your other databases.

We create GIS Maps and other satellite image deliverables, with final products that are orthorectified and georeferenced. Because GIS tools can graphically depict subsurface relationships in multiple dimensions, they are invaluable for presentations, reports and permit applications.

Auracle Geospatial Science works to revolutionize how global governments, pipeline, mining and engineering companies visualize the Earth. We peel away land cover to penetrate ice, soils, water, and overburden to reveal surface and subsurface geospatial information to explore deeper and protect critical infrastructure.​

Our aim is to help companies go beyond regulatory compliance, get approvals faster and instill confidence in the public that this leading-edge technology gives early warning to address problems that threaten the environment.


Remote sensing data for different scales - Geographic Information Systems

Remote Sensing: The art behind geospatial data collection for non-experts

The industries of the world are in the midst of a technology-driven transformation. As technology runs on data, collecting and integrating data continues to be a complicated and technical task, especially with respect to geospatial technology. The exponential growth of geospatial technologies in recent years has made available new instruments and capabilities for gathering and managing spatial data.

Remote sensing, the global positioning system (GPS) and geographic information systems (GIS) are important geospatial technologies. While remote sensing and GPS are methods for collecting information about the Earth's surface, GIS is a complex mapping tool for organizing and analyzing information. In this article, we shall dive deeper into the science, err. the art behind geospatial data collection via remote sensing.

The basics of remote sensing and its sources

Remote sensing is the process of obtaining information about objects, areas or phenomena from a distance, typically from aircraft or satellites. It includes the use of satellite or aircraft-based sensor technologies to detect and classify objects on the Earth's surface and in the atmosphere and oceans.

The age of remote sensing can be said to have started in 1860 with James Wallace Black's photograph of Boston from a balloon. According to an article published in Journal of Extension, most of the remotely sensed data used for mapping and spatial analysis is collected as reflected electromagnetic radiation, which is then processed into a digital image that can be overlaid with other spatial data.

Let’s understand the sources for remote sensing data in detail:

Satellites have been used for capturing geospatial information for over 60 years now. Satellite data is used for an ever-expanding collection of uses, such as weather forecasting, mapping, environmental research, military intelligence and more.

So, how much detail does the satellite actually see? Satellites carry sensors, sometimes more than one, for sensing the Earth that read amounts of reflected energy transmitted to them. For instance, a weather satellite also carries a special instrument for recording multispectral data. The satellite's sensor observes a small portion of Earth at a time called a pixel. The pixel size represents a squarish area that is, for example, 30 meters (100 feet) on a side. The pixel size varies depending on the satellite sensor.

According to a presentation published by NASA’s Landsat Education team, a common misconception about satellite images is that they are photographs. However, they are quite different. Satellites use remote sensing to collect information digitally.

The images are composed of thousands of pixels that the satellite scanned into rows and columns. The satellite gathers a group of rows into a computer file. People use computers to convert this information to images. This information is stored and converted to picture format.

Different objects absorb and reflect different wavelengths. For example, green vegetation reflects in the infrared quite well. This is why we can use remote sensing technology to observe our world in new ways, the article points out.

Satellite images often record visible light or other forms of radiation. Visible-light images are useful for determining the locations and sizes of rivers, lakes, ice-covered or snow-covered areas and other surface features.

Aerial photography is one of the earliest forms of remote sensing and is still one of the most widely used and cost-effective methods of remote sensing. The advent of drones, unmanned aerial vehicles have made aerial photography easier for commercial and non-commercial purposes.

They say the first form or remote sensing began in the 1860s, even before the Wright brothers first flew their plane. Geographers photographed the earth from above using balloons and kites to capture a larger area. With the introduction of airplanes, aerial photography could capture images from much higher. Today, the altitude of aerial photographs ranges from only a short distance above the ground to heights a little more than 60,000 feet. Lower altitude photographs can capture more detail, which implies that with more height the fine details will be obscured, but a wider area and the relationships between features will be shown.

Aerial photography can be conducted at a variety of scales and in a range of formats (e.g., color, black and white and infra-red) and has become popular in vegetation and ocean mapping. Small-scale, radio-controlled (RC) model aircraft and helicopters using 35 mm SLR and video cameras have been used to acquire panchromatic, color, color infrared (CIR) and multispectral aerial photography for a wide range of environmental applications (Green, 2016).

According to experts, this technology was not initially viewed as a serious source of aerial photography. However, with the developments in miniaturized sensors, camera and battery technology, data storage and small multirotor and fixed-wing aerial platforms, known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), over the past decades have served to reinvent the potential that such small platforms and sensors have for the low-cost acquisition of a wide range of aerial data and imagery.

As per studies, With advances in battery technology, navigational controls and payload capacities, many of the smaller UAVs are now capable of utilizing a number of different sensors to collect photographic data, video footage and multispectral, thermal and hyperspectral imagery as well as LiDAR. With the aid of low-cost image processing and soft-copy photogrammetric software, photographic stills can easily be mosaiced and three-dimensional models of the terrain and features constructed. (Source: Science Direct)

LiDAR is a technique for capturing geospatial data that uses laser scanning to create three-dimensional point clouds of geographic features. It is an active remote sensing system which means that the system itself generates energy - in this case, light - to measure things on the ground. LiDAR sensors can be mounted on UAVs, airplanes or satellites.

According to an article, LiDAR fundamentally works on LiDAR is fundamentally a distance technology. From an airplane or helicopter, LiDAR systems send light to the ground. This pulse hits the ground and returns to the sensor. Then, it measures how long it takes for the light to return back to the sensor. By recording the return time, this is how LiDAR measures distance. In fact, this is also how LiDAR got its name – Light Detection and Ranging.

LiDAR systems allow scientists and mapping professionals to examine both natural and manmade environments with accuracy, precision and flexibility. LiDAR uses ultraviolet, visible, or near infrared light to image objects. It can capture a wide range of things, including non-metallic objects, trees, rocks, rain, clouds and even single molecules. Its laser beam can map physical features with very high resolutions for example, an aircraft can map terrain at 30-centimetre (12 in) resolution or better.

There are a wide variety of applications for LiDAR, including agriculture and vegetation mapping, plant species classification, atmosphere, biology and conservation, geology and soil science, law enforcement, military, obstacle detection and road environment recognition, object detection for transportation systems, mining and more.

Data collection via remote sensing and its benefits

The increasing capabilities of computers and communication technology have facilitated the development of remote sensing applications. Here are some of the advantages of using remote sensing technology:

  1. Systematic collection of data: Remote sensing allows for easy collection of data over a variety of scales and resolutions. Data acquisition can be performed systematically and can be processed very fast using machines and artificial intelligence.
  2. One image, multiple applications: A single image captured via remote sensing can be analyzed for different applications and purposes. This facilitates research and study in several fields at the same time. There are no limits on the extent of information that can be gathered from a single image.
  3. Detection of natural calamities: Remote sensing is capable of detecting natural calamities such as forest fires, volcanic eruptions, floods and the areas around it. This is a huge advantage because it helps stakeholders respond immediately and locate the exact areas that need assistance.
  4. Unobstructive: Remote sensing is unobstructive, i.e. it does not disturb the object or area of interest, especially when it is recording the electromagnetic radiation passively from an area.
  5. Relatively cheaper: Remote sensing allows for the revision of maps at a small to medium scale making it relatively cheaper and faster than other methods of data collection and mapping. The cost per unit area is less in the case of large areas.
  6. Large area coverage: It is possible to cover the entire globe and collect a very large amount of data with the help of remote sensing imagery. Not just that, inaccessible areas such as oceans and deep valleys can be easily mapped using remote sensing.
  7. Unbiased processing images: The data is digital and can be readily processed on machines in an unbiased way. Moreover, remotely sensed imagery is analyzed in the laboratory under fair conditions.
  8. Repetitive coverage: Repetitive coverage allows monitoring of dynamic themes like water, land, agriculture and more.

Like everything in the world, along with the advantages come some disadvantages too. For instance, data has to be verified with ground truth before use. And that's exactly what AiDash does. We combine satellite imagery with ground truth to provide intelligent asset management to core industries. To know more about how we use satellite technology to solve vegetation management challenges for power utilities, click here.

Are you willing to transform your vegetation management with satellite technology?


Teaching Staff

The MSc will be delivered by a core team of specialists based within the Geography Department :

Darius Bartlett &ndash GIS, spatial data analysis, research methods

Helen Bradley &ndash GIS, cartography, applied geoinformatics

Fiona Cawkwell - RS, digital image processing, satellite technologies

In addition members of UCC&rsquos Department of Computer Science and the Coastal and Marine Resources Centre will contribute to the lecture and practical programme, and practicing Geoinformaticians in academic, commercial and government settings, will be invited to present aspects of their work


Refresher Training on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) Applications of IGAD

Background

In early 2013 the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR&rsquos) Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT) began the implementation of a regional project aimed at strengthening the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) capacity in geospatial technology for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). The main aim of the project was to improve geospatial capacities for DRR in the Horn of Africa region, within the overall framework of sustainable development.

Since the project's inception, UNOSAT has implemented the following project activities:

  1. Three technical trainings in support to IGAD on the use of geo-information technology (GIT) for DRR, with beneficiaries coming from the IGAD Secretariat, ICPAC, ICPALD, CEWARN and IGAD-Somalia
  2. Development of a geo-database that acts as a common central data storage and management framework for GIS
  3. Awareness raising activities targeting senior decision-makers on the use and benefits of geospatial technologies for DRR.

The first objective of the project (improved technical knowledge and skills in geospatial technologies for DRR) was achieved through the delivery of three technical trainings on the use of geospatial information technology for DRR. The trainings included:

  • Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for DRR
  • Introduction to Remote Sensing (RS) and Field Data Collection techniques for DRR
  • Advanced training based on IGAD institution&rsquos workflow.

This is Phase II of the project during which UNOSAT will extend the capacity development of IGAD, including to its Member States. Some planned activities include training of Member State focal points in the use and benefits of GIS and RS technologies as well as thematic trainings based on the various IGAD Drought Disaster Resilience and Sustainability Initiative (IDDRSI) pillars. Other activities will also include awareness raising events for senior policy-makers within IGAD, technical backstopping as well as the establishment and use of a Geoportal for data sharing. In 2014, UNOSAT will undertake two technical trainings in particular:

  1. Refresher training on GIS and RS applications for previously trained IGAD representatives from the IGAD Specialized Centres (ICPAC, ICPALD, CEWARN, IGAD-Somalia and the IGAD Secretariat.
  2. Training on &lsquoIntroduction to GIS and RS&rsquo for IGAD Member State focal points.

Event Objectives

The aim of the course is to recall the advanced GIS and RS workflow methodologies learnt through the different trainings offered during IGAD &ndash Phase I.

Learning Objectives

At the end of the course participants should be able to:

  • Review basic concepts and terminology related to geospatial information technology
  • Undertake a GIS assignment using different spatial analysis methods
  • Produce good quality thematic maps
  • Undertake multi-temporal remote sensing analysis using different satellite images
  • Review operation application of GIS/RS methodologies relevant to IGAD programs

Content and Structure

This course is composed of 5 modules covering the below topics that will be delivered in 1 week:

  • Introduction to Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing
  • GIS Analysis & Mapping
  • Remote Sensing analysis
  • Applied GIS & Remote Sensing
  • SWOT/training evaluation (Application of GIS/RS for DRR in IGAD

The course is divided into 5 modules. Each module is structured into 4 sessions of 1.5 hours each. The number of estimated hours required to complete the course is 30 hours, which means a workload of 6 hours on average per day.

Methodology

This is a full time face-to-face course comprising of lectures, GIS lab exercises, live demonstrations and round table discussions (80% lab exercises, 20% lectures and discussions). The training methodology focuses on active knowledge sharing and learning by doing through interactive computer assisted GIS lab exercises using local datasets and real case scenarios drawn from past disasters, hazards and risk assessments relevant to the IGAD region.

The course starts by providing a review of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) concepts, methodologies and applications related to IGAD&rsquos operational workflow learnt through the different trainings offered during Phase I of the project (2013). Participants will then, through selected case studies, undertake individual GIS assignments to produce good quality thematic maps using different spatial analysis methods and perform a multi-temporal remote sensing analysis using different satellite images.

Relevant reading material (hand-out presentations and lab exercises tutorials) is shared in flash-disks prior to the start of the course and the training material containing GIS datasets is stored on each participant&rsquos PC.

To enhance the learning process and ensure quality learning takes place, full support is accorded to each participant by the training experts. At the end of each module, the course trainers conduct an interactive wrap up session to assess the learning progress of the group.

Targeted Audience

Participants are technical professionals working at the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) Secretariat, IGAD&rsquos Climate Prediction and Application Centre (ICPAC), IGAD's Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism (CEWARN) IGAD&rsquos Centre for Pastoral Areas and Livestock Development (ICPALD), and other IGAD&rsquos programmes with sound knowledge of GIS and RS concepts and applications.

Important Note: This course has been designed by UNITAR/UNOSAT to address specific operational needs of the different IGAD programmes. We highly recommend that participants attending the course have successfully completed the three training courses already delivered within the framework of UNOSAT-IGAD capacity development project:

Intro to GIS for Disaster Risk Reduction&rdquo, &ldquoIntro to Remote Sensing and Field Data collection Techniques for Disaster Risk Reduction&rdquo, and &ldquoAdvanced Training on GIS And Remote Sensing Applications for IGAD&rdquo.

Important Note:

This course has been designed by UNITAR/UNOSAT to address specific operational needs of the different IGAD programmes. We highly recommend that participants attending the course have successfully completed the three training courses already delivered within the framework of UNOSAT-IGAD capacity development project:

  • Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for DRR
  • Introduction to Remote Sensing (RS) and Field Data collection Techniques for DRR
  • Advance training based on IGAD institution's flow

Additional Information

Institution:

This course will be delivered by UNOSAT, the operational satellite applications programme of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR).

UNOSAT is a technology intensive programme active in all aspects of applied research relating to satellite solutions, from earth observation to telecommunications, positioning and navigation. UNOSAT delivers satellite solutions , geographic information to organizations within and outside the UN system to make a difference in the lives of communities exposed to poverty, hazards, and conflict, or affected by humanitarian and other crises.

Certificate:

Participants will be given a UN training participation certificate from UNITAR.

ESRI ArcGIS version 10.2.1 with extensions (spatial analyst). Google Earth, Access to Internet.


The Remote Sensing and GIS Pdf Notes – RS and GIS Pdf Notes

Remote Sensing & GIS notes pdf – RS & GIS pdf notes – RS & GIS notes pdf file to download are listed below please check it –

Remote Sensing & GIS Book

Latest Material Links

Link – Complete Notes

Link – Unit 1 Notes

Link – Unit 2 Notes

Link – Unit 3 Notes

Link – Unit 4 Notes

Link – Unit 5 Notes

Old Material Links

Link:Complete Notes

Note :- These notes are according to the R09 Syllabus book of JNTU.In R13 and R15,8-units of R09 syllabus are combined into 5-units in R13 and R15 syllabus. If you have any doubts please refer to the JNTU Syllabus Book.

Remote Sensing & GIS Notes pdf Details

Introduction to Photogrammetry: Principle and types of aerial photographs stereoscopy, Map Vs Mosaic, ground control, Parallax measurements for height, determinations.

Remote Sensing – I: Basic concepts and foundation of remote” sensing – elements involved in remote sensing, electromagnetic spectrum, remote sensing terminology, and units.

Remote Sensing -II: Energy resources, energy interactions with earth surface features and atmosphere, resolution, sensors and satellite visual interpretation techniques, basic elements, converging evidence, interpretation for terrain evaluation, spectral properties of water bodies, introduction to digital data analysis.

A Geographic Information System: Introduction, GIS -definition, and terminology, GIS categories, components of GIS, fundamental operations of GIS, A theoretical framework for GIS.

Types of data representation: Data collection and input overview, data input And output. Keyboard entry and coordinate geometry procedure, manual -digitizing and scanning, GIS, Vector GIS -File management, Spatial data – Layer based GIS, mapping.

Remote Sensing and GIS Pdf Notes – RS and GIS Pdf Notes

GIS Spatial Analysis: Computational Analysis Methods (cam), Visual Analysis Methods (VAM), Data storage-vector data storage, attribute data storage, an overview of the data manipulation and analysis. Integrated analysis of the spatial and attribute data.

Water Resources Applications I: Land use/Land cover in water resources, Surface water mapping and inventory, Rainfall-Runoff relations and runoff potential indices of watersheds, Flood and Drought impact assessment and monitoring, Watershed, management for sustainable development and Watershed characteristics.

Water Resources Applications — II: Reservoir sedimentation, Fluvial Geomorphology, water resources management, and monitoring, Ground Water Targeting, Identification of sites for artificial Recharge structures, Drainage Morphometry, inland water quality survey and management, water depth estimation and bathymetry.

Reference – Remote Sensing & GIS-RS & GIS notes pdf – RS & GIS pdf notes – RS & GIS Pdf – RS & GIS Notes

l. Concepts & Techniques of GIS by C.P.Lo Albert. KW. Young, Prentice Hall (India) Publications.
2. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information systems by M.Anji Reddy JNTU Hyderabad 2001, B, S, Publications.
3. GIS by Kang -Tsung Chang, TMH Publications & co.
4. Basics of Remote sensing & GIS by S.Kumar, Laxmi Publications.
5. Fundamental of GIS by Mechanical designs John Wiley & Sons.

Textbooks – Remote Sensing & GIS-RS & GIS notes pdf – RS & GIS pdf notes – RS & GIS Pdf – RS & GIS Notes

l. Remote Sensing and its applications by LRA Narayana University Press I999.
2. Principals of Geophysical Information Systems – Peter A Burrough and Rachael A. MC Donnell, Oxford Publishers 2004.


A review of geographic information system and remote sensing with applications to the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis in China

Geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies offer new opportunities for rapid assessment of endemic areas, provision of reliable estimates of populations at risk, prediction of disease distributions in areas that lack baseline data and are difficult to access, and guidance of intervention strategies, so that scarce resources can be allocated in a cost-effective manner. Here, we focus on the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis in China and review GIS and RS applications to date. These include mapping prevalence and intensity data of Schistosoma japonicum at a large scale, and identifying and predicting suitable habitats for Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of S. japonicum, at a small scale. Other prominent applications have been the prediction of infection risk due to ecological transformations, particularly those induced by floods and water resource developments, and the potential impact of climate change. We also discuss the limitations of the previous work, and outline potential new applications of GIS and RS techniques, namely quantitative GIS, WebGIS, and utilization of emerging satellite information, as they hold promise to further enhance infection risk mapping and disease prediction. Finally, we stress current research needs to overcome some of the remaining challenges of GIS and RS applications for schistosomiasis, so that further and sustained progress can be made to control this disease in China and elsewhere.