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Gemstones of the World


Gemstones of the World is one of the most popular books ever written about gems and gem materials. Over one million copies have been sold. The book contains 320 pages. About 1/3 of them contain basic information about gemstones. The other 2/3 of the pages are dedicated to descriptions and photos of individual gems and gem materials. It includes photos of 1900 gems in rough and polished states. Written for high school level and up. Newly revised fifth edition.

Gemstones of the WorldTable of Contents

Preface7
Introduction8
Gemstones and Their Influence8
Terminology10
The Nomenclature of Gemstones12
Origin and Structure of Gemstones14
Crystal Systems17
Properties of Gemstones20
Hardness20
Cleavage and Fracture24
Density and Specific Gravity25
Weights Used in the Gem Trade30
Optical Properties31
Color31
Color of Streak32
Changes in Color33
Refraction of Light36
Double Refraction40
Dispersion41
Absorption Spectra44
Transparency48
Luster48
Pleochroism49
Light and Color Effects52
Luminescence55
Inclusions58
Deposits and Production of Gemstones61
Types of Deposits62
Mining Methods64
Cutting and Polishing of Gems68
Engraving on Stones69
Cutting and Polishing Agate70
Cutting and Polishing Colored Stones71
Cabochon Cutting71
Faceting72
Ball Cutting74
Cylinder Cutting75
Drilling Gemstones76
Cutting and Polishing Diamond77
Types and Forms of Cut79
Types of Cut79
Forms of Cut80
Classifications of Gemstones82
Scientific Classification82
Commercial Classification84
Value of Gemstones85
Description of Gemstones85
Best-Known Gemstones86
Diamond86
Diamond Occurrences88
Diamond Production89
Diamond Trade90
Valuation of Diamonds92
Famous Diamonds94
Development of the Brilliant Cut96
Corundum Species98
Ruby98
Sapphire102
Beryl Species106
Emerald106
Aquamarine110
Precious Beryl112
Chrysoberyl114
Spinel116
Topaz118
Garnet Group120
Zircon124
Tourmaline Group126
Spodumene Species130
Hiddenite130
Kunzite130
Quartz132
Rock Crystal132
Smoky Quartz132
Amethyst134
Amethyst Quartz134
Citrine136
Prasiolite136
Rose Quartz138
Aventurine138
Prase138
Blue Quartz138
Quartz Cat's-Eye140
Hawk's-Eye140
Tiger's-Eye140
Chalcedony142
Carnelian142
Sard142
Chrysoprase144
Bloodstone144
Dendritic Agate146
Moss Agate146
Agate148
Layer Stones158
Jasper162
Petrified Wood164
Opal Species166
Jade170
Peridot174
Zoisite Species176
Tanzanite176
Thulite176
Anyolite176
Hematite178
Pyrite178
Feldspar Group180
Amazonite180
Moonstone180
Orthoclase180
Labradorite182
Aventurine Feldspar182
Rhodochrosite184
Rhodonite184
Turquoise186
Lapis Lazuli188
Sodalite190
Azurite190
Malachite192
Lesser-Known Gemstones194
Andalusite194
Euclase194
Hambergite196
Iolite196
Phenakite196
Dumortierite198
Danburite198
Axinite198
Benitoite200
Cassiterite200
Epidote200
Idocrase202
Sinhalite202
Kornerupine202
Prehnite204
Petalite204
Scapolite204
Diopside206
Beryllonite206
Brazilianite206
Amblygonite208
Enstatite208
Lazulite208
Dioptase210
Apatite210
Sphene210
Kyanite212
Scheelite212
Variscite212
Fluorite214
Hemimorphite214
Smithsonite214
Sphalerite216
Cerussite216
Chrysocolla216
Serpentine218
Stichtite218
Ulexite218
Tiger's-Eye Matrix218
Gemstones for Collectors220
Rocks as Gemstones244
Onyx Marble244
Tufa244
Landscape Marble244
Orbicular Diorite246
Obsidian246
Moldavite246
Alabaster248
Agalmatolite248
Meerschaum248
Fossils248
Organic Gemstones250
Coral250
Jet252
Cannel Coal252
Ivory252
Odontolite252
Amber254
Pearl256
Operculum265
Mother-of-Pearl265
Imitation and Synthetic Gemstones266
Imitations266
Combined Stones267
Synthetic Gemstones267
Treatment271
Genuineness Test for Diamond274
New on the Market276
Symbolic and Beneficial Gemstones283
Cosmic-Astral Symbolic Stones283
Medicinal Stones287
Bibliography293
Table of Constants295
Index312