4.14: Recommend Reading - Geosciences

Recommend reading! Learn more about Plate Tectonics Theory at these online resources prepared by the Smithsonian Institution and U.S. Geological Survey:

This Dynamic Earth (The Story of Plate Tectonics) - this on-line booklet is used for teaching plate tectonics at schools and universities around the world. It has a companion map:

This Dynamic Planet (World Map of Volcanoes, Earthquakes, Impact Craters, and Plate Tectonics
(see Figure 4.66).

Crustal age of the Seafloor Map: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Geophysical Data Center [large image]

Does Vitamin C Actually Help When You're Sick?

Vitamin C holds an almost legendary status among drugstore supplements. It’s common to take a few tablets when we’re worried about getting sick or mix up a glass of Emergen-C at the first sign of a cold. It’s nice to imagine it as a cure-all, but reality doesn’t quite match up with our hopes.

Vitamin C probably wouldn’t be where it is today without Nobel laureate Linus Pauling getting really excited about it . (His enthusiasm was, ironically, infectious.) But even today, the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University writes: “It is widely thought by the general public that vitamin C boosts immune function, yet human studies published to date are conflicting.”

When vitamin C helps

As we noted in a previous post on immune boosting supplements, vitamin C’s proven benefits are small and probably don’t apply to most of us. People undergoing severe stress due to extreme levels of exercise (like marathon runners and soldiers training in subarctic conditions) may be less likely to catch a cold if they take vitamin C.

A few studies have found that people who regularly take large amounts of vitamin C may suffer from slightly shorter colds (clearing up a day or half a day early) but the vitamin didn’t prevent them from getting sick in the first place. That said, a 2013 Cochrane review concluded that the evidence is mixed, and even the shortened colds aren’t reliably seen in research.

The National Institutes of Health summarizes the research like so:

Overall, the evidence to date suggests that regular intakes of vitamin C at doses of at least 200 mg/day do not reduce the incidence of the common cold in the general population, but such intakes might be helpful in people exposed to extreme physical exercise or cold environments and those with marginal vitamin C status, such as the elderly and chronic smokers.

When it doesn’t

“Taking supplements once cold symptoms have already begun has no proven benefits,” the Linus Pauling Institute says . If you’re already coming down with a cold, the opportunity to maybe-sorta-possibly reduce the duration of your cold has already passed.

The institute’s information page on vitamin C sifts through the research on other conditions, and I’d recommend reading it if you want to know more. People who routinely get enough vitamin C have lower risks of some health conditions, including heart disease.

Fortunately, vitamin C pretty common in fruits and vegetables, and if you’re eating an overall healthy diet you probably won’t have any difficulty meeting your needs. If you want to hedge your bets by taking it in pill or powder form, there aren’t many downsides. High doses can sometimes cause diarrhea, but studies haven’t reliably identified any long-term or serious consequences of mega-dosing the vitamin. To be cautious, though, a maximum of 2,000 mg per day is considered the safe upper limit .

These People Should Be Required to Get Vaccinated

Cases are surging. We need to maximize the number of inoculated frontline workers and students.

By Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Aaron Glickman and Amaya Diana

Dr. Emanuel is a professor of medical ethics and health policy at the University of Pennsylvania, where Mr. Glickman and Ms. Diana are researchers.

The next coronavirus surge seems to be underway. Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin are among the states with rising cases, hospitalizations and intensive care occupancy, and hospitalization rates among younger people are increasing nationally. The causes of this pronounced rush of cases — the spread of a more infectious B.1.1.7 variant and lockdown fatigue — are not going away.

We need to sharply reduce coronavirus infections to turn the tide and quell the pandemic. The best hope is to maximize the number of people vaccinated, especially among those who interact with many others and are likely to transmit the virus.

How can we increase vaccinations? Mandates.

Vaccines should be required for health care workers and for all students who plan to attend in-person classes this fall — including younger children once the vaccine is authorized for them by the Food and Drug Administration.

Employers should also be prepared to make vaccines mandatory for prison guards, E.M.T.s, police officers, firefighters and teachers if overall vaccinations do not reach the level required for herd immunity. Short of a mandate, these workers should be reminded that these vaccines have proved safe and are important not only for their health, but for the health of those they deal with in their jobs.

Our recommendations are not premature. At over three million shots per day, the United States is a global leader in vaccine distribution. Over 35 percent of the population — over 120 million people — have received at least one shot. But we are already seeing signs that vaccination drives are plateauing in some states, including Mississippi, New Mexico, Oklahoma and South Dakota.

  • What do you say to a friend who doesn't want the vaccine?
    Our chatbot, developed with experts, tackles this thorny conversation.
  • Who isn’t getting vaccinated, and why?
    Sema K. Sgaier, a researcher who uses data to address health problems, looks at the motivations of the unvaccinated.
  • What can I do while my children are still unvaccinated?
    David Leonhardt writes about the difficult safety calculations families will face.
  • How can our vaccines be better?
    Michael V. Callahan and Mark C. Poznansky, infectious disease experts, on the limits of the current vaccine development strategy.

Evidence from abroad underscores the importance of raising vaccination rates. In Britain, some 47 percent of the population has received at least one dose. This vaccination level in combination with lockdowns led new cases there to fall from nearly 60,000 per day in early January to fewer than 3,000 per day now — a 96 percent decline. In the same period, deaths dropped to fewer than 40 a day from about 1,200 — a 97 percent decline, and a much more significant drop than in the United States.

In Israel, over 60 percent of the population has received at least one vaccine dose and deaths have fallen by over 85 percent from the January peak U.S. deaths fell by more than 75 percent during the same period.

Polling suggests almost 60 percent of all Americans are already vaccinated or want a vaccine as soon as possible. But younger people, white evangelicals and conservatives are among those less likely to feel the urgency. To return to our prepandemic lives, we will need to achieve herd immunity, with 70 percent to 85 percent of the population having some form of immunity. That’s a steep climb.

Mandates are the fastest way to get to herd immunity. Frontline workers should be at the start of the line.

As of March 7 (amazingly, we lack real-time data), just under half of all frontline health care workers had not received a vaccine, according to a survey conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation and The Washington Post. In part, that was because many workers had not been offered one by their employers. But even more remarkably, 18 percent said they did not plan to get a shot and 12 percent reported being undecided.

Those who had no plan to get vaccinated included 24 percent of nursing home workers and 23 percent of home care workers. This vaccine hesitancy can have consequences. Recent government data showed 11 percent of skilled nursing facilities nationwide had at least one staff member developing Covid-19.

None of us likes being told what to do. But getting vaccinated is not just about our personal health, but the health of our communities and country.

Health care workers are professionals whose primary obligation is to their patients’ health and well-being. Except in extreme cases, their personal preferences are secondary.

When they decline to be vaccinated, they put their own preferences above the health and safety of their patients. No patient should worry whether her doctor, nurse or blood draw technician is vaccinated. Health care facilities should require all their workers to be vaccinated for the coronavirus, just as many do for the flu.

Similarly, all colleges and school districts should mandate that students who are authorized to receive Covid-19 vaccines get them. All 50 states already require certain vaccines for children to attend school. A Covid-19 vaccine should be no different. Tens of millions more Americans would be vaccinated as a result, pushing the country closer to herd immunity. This approach would also ensure vaccination equity by getting shots to all children, including poor children. Religious or philosophical exemptions should not be allowed.

Obviously, though, exceptions should be granted for those with health problems, allergies or disabilities that could put them at risk. But they should engage in additional protective behavior, like wearing tightly fitted N95 masks at all times.

Worldwide, over 806 million vaccine doses have been administered. Rates of serious side effects and allergic reactions are very rare. Indeed, the vaccines are safer than driving to work.

Mandates are the last tool we want to deploy to increase vaccination rates. But all indications are that the United States is going to need a mandate to reduce transmission, achieve herd immunity and get back to normal.

Recommended Reading: Apple's Jony Ive talks design and the timepiece

Recommended Reading highlights the best long-form writing on technology and more in print and on the web. Some weeks, you'll also find short reviews of books that we think are worth your time. We hope you enjoy the read.

The man behind much of Apple's design doesn't often open up for interviews, but following Cupertino's Watch reveal, much of the focus has been on the fashion-minded. That said, Jony Ive offered Vogue a bit more on the upcoming wrist-worn device and his aesthetic mindset as a whole -- right down to things like the sound a watch band makes as it closes.

We've detailed the FCC no longer protecting the NFL's long-standing blackout policy, but that's just one of the issues that Commissioner Roger Goodell faces at the moment. This piece from Grantland discusses the US government's recent chatter on the league.

Alien: Isolation is due to hit consoles and PC next week, and the creature you'll need to keep at bay in order to survive is frightening. After you read up on their origins, head over to Joystiq for the full review.

This multi-part series details the $350 million project backed by Zappos CEO Tony Hsieh that's transforming downtown Las Vegas and looking to build a startup haven. If you've yet to read up on the whole thing, this is a great place to start.

By now, you've likely read a bit about the ongoing unrest in Gaza, but a group of entrepreneurs is still hard at work to bring innovation to the area. Wired offers a look at what startup life is like amidst the disorder.

Oceanography in the Next Decade: Building New Partnerships (1992)


Public and private institutions have developed an excellent graduate education system, yielding graduates employed in academia, government, and the private sector in the United States and abroad. The boundaries of oceanography are not well defined, and the field is characterized by many entry points from associated fields at various educational levels. Because of the diversity within the field and its relative youth as a separate science, a research oceanographer cannot simply be defined as one who holds a doctor's degree in ocean science. Many senior faculty in oceanography departments and institutions earned degrees in fields other than oceanography, and many scientists continue to enter ocean science from other fields. Nor can oceanographers be defined as those who perform basic research that is funded by the Division of Ocean Sciences of the National Science Foundation (NSF) or by the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Either definition misses many scientists whose primary activity is teaching, whose research is funded from other sources, or who are employed by federal agencies.

Ocean science will be characterized in the coming decade by a mixture of large multiple-investigator programs and individual investigations. The research will be only as good as the scientific

talent that can be applied to the questions posed. Concern has developed regarding the potential shortage of Ph.D.s in science and engineering in the 1990s and beyond in terms of both number and quality. The oceanographic community has, however, questioned this assertion of a lack of qualified doctorates. This section discusses the demographics of oceanography and relates its characteristics to research needs.

In examining ocean science, the board asked eight specific questions:

How many Ph.D.-level oceanographers are there, and at what rate has the number of Ph.D.-level ocean scientists changed over time?

How many ocean science doctorates are produced annually?

What is the present age profile of oceanographers in academia and the federal government, and has it changed over time?

Has the field matured in terms of becoming a separate discipline?

How has the percentage of women, minorities, and foreign nationals in the field changed over time?

Has the field changed in terms of academic emphasis among the major subdisciplines [physical oceanography (P.O.), chemical oceanography (C.O) and marine chemistry (M.C.), marine geology and geophysics (MG and G), biological oceanography (B.O.) and marine biology (M.B.), and ocean engineering (O.E.)]?

Has the balance of the field changed in terms of the relative size and importance of the major oceanographic institutions?

How are research oceanographers supported? What is the ratio of institutional to federal salary support for the oceanography community as a whole?

Data Sources

Information was collected from a variety of sources. Data on the demographics of oceanography was obtained from biennial reports (1973 to 1989) issued by NSF, called Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States (NSF, 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991). In addition, the Ocean Studies Board surveyed the major ocean science institutions and federal agencies (Appendixes IV and V). These two sources form the basis for much of the information presented. Additional information on faculty ages and number of Ph.D.s graduating was obtained from Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc.

(JOI). Data on ocean sciences grant recipient characteristics were obtained from NSF, and projected demands for Ph.D.-level researchers were obtained from four major oceanographic research programs.


National Science Foundation Surveys

Since 1973, NSF (through the NRC) has collected information on the employment and demographic characteristics of scientists and engineers with doctoral degrees in the United States. The NSF survey constituted a sample of the Ph.D. population, from which total population values were estimated. These estimates have substantial associated standard errors, so that statistical comparisons were not carried out. The number of oceanographers in all sectors of employment increased from 1,130 in 1973 to 2,460 in 1989 (Figure 4-1). From 1973 to 1981, the average annual rate of increase for academic oceanography was 4.7 percent from 1981 to 1989, 4.0 percent. Oceanographers who consider teaching as

FIGURE 4-1 Change in number of Ph.D.s employed in oceanography over time (NSF data).

FIGURE 4-2 Primary work activity for Ph.D.s employed in oceanography (NSF data).

their primary work activity decreased from 21 percent in 1973 to 11 percent in 1989 the portion of oceanographers who consider basic research as their primary work activity fluctuated around 40 percent (Figure 4-2). Percentages in all employment sectors show no discernible trends over time (Figure 4-3). In 1989, most Ph.D.-level oceanographers&mdashabout 60 percent&mdashwere employed at educational institutions, including secondary schools, junior colleges, and four-year colleges. The federal government employed approxi

FIGURE 4-3 Employment sectors for Ph.D.s employed in oceanography (NSF data).

mately 20 percent of the nation's oceanographers industry, about 10 percent nonprofit organizations, 7 percent and state governments, 4 percent. These percentages remained relatively stable over time.

The ''maturity" of a discipline is the degree to which it is self-perpetuating and separate from other fields. Estimating the absolute maturity of a discipline is difficult, but examining changes in a number of indicators over time can show whether a field is advancing or declining. Two such indicators are the number of post-doctoral fellowships awarded and the ratio of faculty positions that are in the form of full professorships versus assistant professors. According to NSF data, the number of postdoctoral positions has increased, from an estimated 20 in 1973 to 84 in 1989 (Figure 4-4).

For new fields the ratio of full to assistant professors tends to increase over time because of the time required for faculty promotion and tenure, and the time universities need to establish tenured positions. For all science and engineering fields, the ratio has increased steadily over time, from 1.6 in 1973 to 2.4 in 1989 (Figure 4-5). The ratio for oceanography increased from 1.0 to 3.5 in the same period (Figure 4-5). The leap in the ratio in 1989 was due to a substantial increase in the number of full professors and a decrease in the number of assistant professors. The full to

FIGURE 4-4 Postdoctoral fellows in oceanography (NSF data).

FIGURE 4-5 Ratio of full to assistant professors (NSF data).

assistant professor ratio is even lower for women, reflecting their relatively recent entrance into the field.

The proportion of the field made up of women increased from about 3 percent in 1973 to 11 percent in 1989 (Figure 4-6A). Minorities and foreign nationals practicing oceanography in the United States showed no significant trend from 1973 to 1989 (Figures 4-6B and C).

NSF data show that from 1973 to 1989, the median age of Ph.D. oceanographers shifted from the 35-to 39-year-old bracket to the 40-to 44-year-old bracket.

Ocean Studies Board Survey

Information on the potential supply of and demand for oceanographers is limited. Several attempts have been made to characterize the field over the past 20 years (NRC, 1970, 1972, 1981).

FIGURE 4-6 (A) Gender of employed oceanographers (NSF data). (B) Race of employed oceanographers (NSF data). (C) Nationality of employed oceanographers (NSF data).

For this study, the Ocean Studies Board (OSB) sent questionnaires to 52 oceanographic institutions, research laboratories, and academic members of the Council on Ocean Affairs, and to 8 federal agencies to assess the supply and demand within the academic and federal sectors. Responses were received from 40 academic institutions, including all the large academic programs and research institutions, and from 7 federal agencies (Appendixes VI and VII). Of the 40 institutions employing oceanographers in 1990, only 29 had employed oceanographers in 1970.

Replies to the OSB questionnaire indicated that the number of academic oceanographers increased from 540 in 1970 to 1,674 in 1990 (Figure 4-7). These include both teaching faculty and research faculty. It should be noted that some of the growth in the 1980&ndash1990 period for academic oceanographers was due to the inclusion of 378 faculty members from two newly created units, at the University of Hawaii (UH) and the University of Washington (UW), that had not been included in the totals before 1990. At the same time, the number of Ph.D. oceanographers in federal agencies rose from 148 to 516. The annual rates of increase (percent) were

FIGURE 4-7 Ph.D.-level federal and academic oceanographers (OSB survey).

FIGURE 4-8 Age distribution of Ph.D.-level oceanographers in oceangraphic institutions and universities (OSB survey).

Figures 4-8 and 4-9 show that for universities and government laboratories, respectively, the largest number of oceanographers in any age range falls in the 40-to 50-year-old category. The marked peak in the age distribution of federally employed oceanographers could reflect the establishment and expansion of federal oceanography programs in the 1970s.

The ratio of full to assistant professors in ocean sciences over the past 20 years has increased from 1.0 to 1.6 (Table 4-1). During roughly the same period, NSF data show an increase from 1.0 to 3.5. This reason for this discrepancy in unknown, although the large standard error in the NSF data makes comparisons difficult. Figure 4-10 shows the increase in Ph.D.-level staff by rank. The number of postdoctoral positions increased from 11 in 1970 to 111 in 1990, according to OSB data, compared with an increase from 20 in 1973 to 84 in 1989, according to NSF data.

Figure 4-11 shows changes in the number of Ph.D.-level oceanographers by discipline over time, as determined by the OSB sur

FIGURE 4-9 Age distribution of Ph.D.-level oceanographers employed by government agencies (OSB survey).

vey. The category that includes biological oceanography and marine biology continues to dominate numerically, reflecting the number of relatively small marine laboratories that focus on biological research. Except for a marked increase in ocean engineering, the relative ratios among the academic subdisciplines have not changed substantially over the past 20 years (Table 4-2). For

TABLE 4-1 Ratio of Full Professors to Assistant Professors in Oceanography, 1970&ndash1990 (OSB survey)

FIGURE 4-10 Rank of Ph.D.-level staff in academic institutions (OSB survey).

FIGURE 4-11 Change in number of Ph.D.-level oceanographers over time (OSB survey).

TABLE 4-2 Percentage of Ocean Scientists in Subdisciplines (OSB survey)

Biological Oceanography/Marine Biology

Chemical Oceanography/Marine Chemistry

Marine Geology and Geophysics

federally employed oceanographers, the percentage of biologists has declined markedly, and the percentages of specialists in physical oceanography and marine geology and geophysics have increased (Table 4-2). The percentage of biologists in the federal government is considerably higher than in academia.

NSF, ONR, and 101 Institutional Data

The JOI members are 10 of the country's largest oceanographic institutions. In the most recent year for which data are available (fiscal year 1991), the JOI schools received 45 percent of the NSF Ocean Science Research Section funding and 42 percent of ONR funding (SE31 and SE32).

Figure 4-12 shows the percentage of faculty at JOI member institutions related to the total number of oceanography faculty, excluding data for the University of Washington and the University of Hawaii. In general, the percentage of the total oceanography faculty located in JOI institutions has not changed over time, although the percentage of marine engineers at JOI institutions may have increased, and biologists and chemists may have decreased (Figure 4-12). The JOI institutions, where the large ships are concentrated, still tend to dominate the field in the disciplines that require large ships, such as marine geology and geo

FIGURE 4-12 Percentage of oceanography staff at JOI institutions (OSB survey).

FIGURE 4-13 Percentage of oceanography staff at Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (OSB survey).

physics and physical oceanography. This statement is less true for the biological sciences. If the same comparison is made for just Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), the two largest oceanographic institutions, their combined dominance in terms of percentage of faculty has decreased steadily over the past 20 years (Figure 4-13), except in marine engineering. So although the percentage of total oceanography faculty at the two largest oceanographic institutions has decreased over the past two decades, the percentage of total oceanography faculty at the ten largest has remained about the same.

JOI provided information on its institutions' students, graduates, and faculty. The number of ocean science doctorates awarded annually at JOI institutions increased from 90 in 1970 to 126 in 1991 (Figure 4-14). The major change is the large increase in the number of women earning doctorates in the ocean sciences, up from 10 percent in 1980 to almost 30 percent in 1991. The number of foreign students earning doctorates is also about 30 percent 2.5 percent of JOI students are underrepresented minorities.

The median age of oceanographers who received NSF grants increased from 40 in 1977 to 45 in 1990. The median age of JOI faculty was 44 years in 1990 (Figure 4-15).

FIGURE 4-14 Number of Ph.D.s awarded annually at JOI institutions.

FIGURE 4-15 Age distribution of Ph.D.-level staff at JOI institutions in 1990.

Demand from the Major Programs

The extra demand required for the major ocean science initiatives planned for the 1990s is difficult to estimate. It is possible to estimate how many ocean scientists the major programs will require if the programs are funded at the projected levels, but the number of participants who are already in the field is an unknown. Because oceanography continues to attract scientists from physics, chemistry, biology, and geology, entry points into the field vary from the undergraduate to the postdoctoral level. Thus demand can often be met from associated fields. Nonetheless, it is of interest to estimate the impacts of four major oceanographic initiatives on human resources. The requirements of the programs were estimated by the individual program offices and represent a maximum level under a scenario of full funding and the assumption that the programs retain their original scopes and timetables.

The U.S. office for the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) has estimated the work force that will be required to carry out its planned experiments for 1990&ndash2000 (Table 4-3). The figures were extrapolated from NSF-funded project proposals. The total principal investigator (PI) and postdoctoral fellow labor-months estimated for the U.S. part of WOCE is 8,189, of a total of 28,507 (30 percent). The U.S. office for the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) estimated a requirement of 14,000 labor-months for all categories from 1990 to 2000. If it is assumed that roughly

TABLE 4-3 Estimated Demand for Ph.D.s for Major Ocean Science Research Programs (1990&ndash2000)

All Ph.D.-Level Oceanographers

a Assumes 6 person-months per year for 10 years.

b Assumes that JGOFS and RIDGE have the same ratio of PI and postdoctoral labor-months: total man-months (30%) as WOCE.

the same percentage of the total labor-months for WOCE scientists and postdocs should be valid for JGOFS, then JGOFS will require an estimated 4,300 labor-months (0.3 × 14,400) in this decade. The Ridge Inter-Disciplinary Global Experiment (RIDGE office estimates it needs 4,000 labor-months over the 1990&ndash2000 decade, and the Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) program has estimated 6,600 labor-months at the PI and postdoctoral levels. If 6 labor-months per labor-year are assumed, equal annual effort over the decade, and full program funding are assumed, approximately 300 Ph.D.s will be required to carry out WOCE, JGOFS, GLOBEC, and RIDGE. Of these, 100 will be at the postdoctoral level. If only 50 percent of the average oceanographer's labor-months are available for research, about 22 percent of the 1990 academic oceanographer pool would be needed for these four programs, if they are fully funded.

Answering Specific Questions

How many Ph.D.-level oceanographers are there and at what rate has the number of Ph.D.-level ocean scientists changed over time? According to the OSB survey, there were 1,674 academic oceanographers and 516 federal oceanographers in 1990. The NSF survey (1989) estimated 1,354 academic oceanographers, 453 federally employed oceanographers, and 653 Ph.D.-level oceanographers in other sectors.

The growth rate in the number of Ph.D.-level oceanographers slowed from the 1970s to the 1980s. Average annual growth rates for the pool of academic oceanographers decreased from 4.7 to 4.0 percent according to NSF surveys, and from 6.4 to 2.6 percent according to the OSB survey. The slowing of growth was even more evident for the federal government.

How many ocean science doctorates are produced annually? The JOI data show that approximately 126 oceanography Ph.D.s were awarded from JOI institutions in 1991, which is the largest number in any year for which data are available.

What is the present age profile of oceanographers in academia and the federal government, and has it changed over time? The OSB survey measured a median age in the 40-to 50-year-old bracket for both academic and federally employed oceanographers. The JOI faculty age distribution shows a median of approximately 44 years. The median age of the field has increased over the past 20 years from the 35-to 39-year-old bracket to the 40-to 44-year-old bracket, according to the NSF survey. In addition, the median age

of NSF Ocean Sciences Division grantees increased from 40 years in 1977 to 45 years in 1990.

Has the field matured in terms of becoming a separate discipline? Over the past 20 years, the field has matured according to several measures. The expansion of postdoctoral positions shown by both the NSF and the OSB surveys, and the increase in the ratio of full to assistant professors are both indicators of the field's maturing. The significance of changes in the faculty ratio is uncertain, however, because the ratio for the combined science and engineering fields has also increased, and the 1989 jump in ratios for oceanographers is difficult to explain. The lag of female faculty behind the rest of the field may be because of the relatively recent entry of women into the field.

Has the participation of women, minorities, and foreign nationals changed over time? The percentage of women in the field of oceanography increased from 4 to 11 percent from 1973 to 1989, according to the NSF survey. At present, 30 percent of students at JOI institutions are women. The percentage of underrepresented minorities is low in both the population of employed oceanographers (7.7 percent) and the JOI student population (2.5 percent). The percentage of oceanographers working in the United States who are foreign nationals did not change dramatically from 1973 to 1989.

Has the field changed in terms of emphasis among the differing major subdisciplines (physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics, biological oceanography and marine biology, and ocean engineering)? The relative balance of the number of scientists in the academic disciplines has changed little in the past 20 years. For federally employed scientists, fewer are biologists and more are specialists in physical oceanography and marine geology and geophysics now than in 1970.

3.2 Significance effects of all the variables

A multivariate MANOVA analysis revealed the variables that had statistically significant differences in SOC related to land use systems, slopes, and aspects. Table 4 shows the results of the significance analysis for each of the three variables. The highest significance was reported for land use, followed by slope and aspect.

Table 4MANOVA results showing the significance of the impact of land use, slope, and aspect for SOC ( n=1440 ).

Sig. < 0.05 (statistically significant difference) in bold. Sig. > 0.05 (no statistically significant difference).

The analysis of the significance of the different variables for each land use type is presented in Table 5.

Table 5MANOVA results regarding significance of all the variables under different LUS.

Sig. < 0.05 (statistically significant difference) in bold. Sig. > 0.05 (no statistically significant difference).

For forest land use, no variables were significant, indicating that the variation of the SOC with high contents in those components was not related to slope or aspect. For field crops and permanent crops, only slope had a significant effect on SOC. For grazing lands, both variables (slope and aspect) revealed significant effects on SOC content.

Data Processing and Plotting Using Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) Course

Course Overview
This course is designed to introduce students to different types of spatial data, data processing and interpolation functions and data plotting using GMT (Generic Mapping Tools). GMT is a set of public domain tools that will be used in conjunction with UNIX general processing tools (awk, grep) and basic shell programming. The examples presented in the course will focus on marine geophysical data, however many of the principles are applicable to other scientific data.

The learning outcomes for the course include:

  • An understanding of the differences between vector and raster data
  • Knowledge and critical assessment of map projections and datums
  • An understanding of processing techniques used for vector and raster data, with a particular focus on data interpolation techniques
  • The ability to use basic shell programming, UNIX commands and awk programming
  • The ability to use common GMT commands to plot, process and manipulate both vector and raster data

The course is targeted towards Honours (fourth year) students with a background in geosciences and an interest in developing skills in data processing and data visualisation. The course is designed for new users of GMT. A background in UNIX is useful but not essential. Postgraduate students and staff are welcome. In addition, for the first time, this course is offered to participants of the Basin GENESIS Hub.

Course Structure
The course will run over 4 days (10am-4pm) between Tuesday 29th March-Friday 1st April, 2016. It is arranged in a computer laboratory setting with lectures and hands-on examples.

Day 1: GMT and UNIX introduction, GMT Basics and a review of map projections
Day 2: Vector data plotting and processing and an introduction to shell scripting
Day 3: Raster data plotting and processing with a focus on grid interpolation
Day 4: Independent work on assessment

The assessment for this course will include the submission of publication quality maps and associated shell scripts as well as a series of short answers. It will be due by 5pm 8th April, 2016. Please e-mail a PDF no larger than 10 Mb to Sabin – or alternatively send via Dropbox or other large file transfer system (such as CloudStor if you are a student or staff member of the University).

Recommended Reading
We recommend that you download the GMT Technical Reference and Cookbook from the GMT website and follow the links.

You can also complete the online GMT Tutorial which you can also access from the GMT website.

An easier and highly recommended approach to get some background insight is to watch at least some of the “Novice”-level video podcasts made by the creators of GMT, titled ‘GMT – The Generic Mapping Tools‘ which are available via iTunes University.

Moresi, L., Dufour, F., and Muhlhaus, H.B., 2002, Mantle convection modeling with viscoelastic/brittle lithosphere: Numerical methodology and plate tectonic modeling: Pure And Applied Geophysics, v. 159, no. 10, p. 2335–2356, doi: 10.1007/s00024-002-8738-3.

Moresi, L., Dufour, F., and Muhlhaus, H.B., 2003, A Lagrangian integration point finite element method for large deformation modeling of viscoelastic geomaterials: Journal of Computational Physics, v. 184, no. 2, p. 476–497.

Moresi, L., Quenette, S., Lemiale, V., Mériaux, C., Appelbe, W., Mühlhaus, 2007, Computational approaches to studying non-linear dynamics of the crust and mantle: Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, v. 163, p. 69–82, doi: 10.1016/j.pepi.2007.06.009.

What Should I Read Next‪?‬ Wondery

What Should I Read Next? is the show for every reader who has ever finished a book and faced the problem of not knowing what to read next. Each week, Anne Bogel, of the blog Modern Mrs Darcy, interviews a reader about the books they love, the books they hate, and the books they're reading now. Then, she makes recommendations about what to read next. The real purpose of the show is to help YOU find your next read.

Ep 289: A ridiculous plan to read more books

Today’s guest created a unique plan to help him tackle the books one “must read before they die,” but now he’s looking for less planning and more bookish serendipity.

Author, blogger, and podcaster Neil Pasricha hosts the show 3 Books, where he talks with avid readers about the three most formative books in their lives. The show originated as a way for Neil to find lesser known titles and backlist books to boost his reading life. Now, he finds himself assigning too much “reading homework,” and he’s looking for ways to spend more time connecting with each book he reads instead of breezing through to the next checkmark on his TBR.

Between two book podcasters we cover a lot of ground today. Be sure to check out the show notes for a full list of the titles. You just might find a formative book for you.

You can find Neil writing on his website or follow him on Twitter and Instagram.

And don't forget to listen to my episode of 3 Books recorded (partially) in the Rare Books Room at the Strand.

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Ep 288: Looking for that WOW! factor

Are you a book collector? Today's guest has a bookshelf full of vintage beauty guidebooks, and though she considers this a separate part of her bookish life, there were some surprising connections to her taste in crime fiction.

After hearing about her collection, you may not be surprised to find out that Brenda LaBelle is a make-up artist turned librarian. She's looking for more than a pretty cover though, Brenda likes books with stylish prose and memorable characters.

Listen now wherever you get your podcasts—and be sure to visit the show website for today's complete book list–including titles you’ve never heard on the podcast. (You'll also find a photo of Brenda's beauty bookshelf there!)

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Ep 287: I want to be where the readers are

Today's guest loves discussing books just as much as she enjoys reading them. She's ready to swap spicy opinions and share book recommendations with her fellow readers, but she hasn't found those fellow readers just yet.

Allison Matz prefers to be Twitter and Instagram-free even though she knows there are vibrant book communities online. Today she comes to us with a question: with no social media, how is an avid reader supposed to connect with her book people? Anne has some advice for Allison, and hopefully you’ll pick up some tips today, too—whether you’re getting ready to meet your book club in person again or are still seeking out your group of readers.

Allison also displays her passion for a genre that doesn't get a lot of love on the podcast.

Visit the podcast website for today's complete book list and to leave a comment for Allison since she's not on social media.

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Ep 286: How to find those hidden gems

If you've been listening to podcasts or tearing through a new series on Netflix instead of picking up a book, we're here to cheer you on (really)! Different forms of art and storytelling can be a refreshing change of pace for avid readers, and taking a break from the books might even benefit your reading life in the long run.

But today's guest came to us with a request for books that will hold his attention and get him back to turning the pages instead of pressing play on another podcast episode. In addition to podcast listening, youth services librarian Hamid Printer enjoys recommending adventurous, exciting books to readers of all ages and hosting epic fantasy game nights for friends.

Anne has a whole lot of books to share with Hamid that will hopefully rival even the most immersive game night or absorbing podcast episode.

Head over to the show notes page on our website for all of the books, podcasts, and games mentioned in today's show.

You can follow Hamid on Instagram.

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Ep 285: Books that leave you speechless

Even though reading is a solitary activity, you’re never truly alone as a reader. You’re never the only reader who prefers dog-eared pages to bookmarks or the only reader who reads the last page first.

Today’s guest used to feel self-conscious about her affection for stories that explore difficult themes. But we know that Rachel Matthews isn’t the only reader who enjoys darker fiction. In fact, I’m willing to bet that some of you have been waiting for an episode with a reader just like Rachel.

Check out the full list of books from today's show at

If Rachel's dark side sounds like your book twin be sure to follow her on Instagram.

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Ep 284: I need an irresistible read this summer

Over the last year, we’ve talked to readers who voraciously devour romance, mystery, and graphic novels to escape real life—and readers who struggle to pick up a single book, even if they know it’s one they’ll love. There’s no right way to respond to stress as a reader, and today’s guest is here to share encouragement and insight for readers experiencing burnout.

Journalist Anne Helen Petersen writes the weekly email newsletter Culture Study and recently published Can’t Even: How Millennials Became the Burnout Generation—today, we discuss how all of us, millennial or otherwise, have experienced the burnout associated with a global pandemic and seen its effects in our reading lives.

No matter how your reading life has changed, or stayed the same, over the last year, you’ll find comfort in today’s episode, as well as insight into your experience this past year.

Visit the show notes page on our website to get the full list of books discuss and to read along with a full-show transcript.

John 19:17-18, 25-39

A reading from the holy Gospel according to John

So they took Jesus, and, carrying the cross himself,
he went out to what is called the Place of the Skull,
in Hebrew, Golgotha.
There they crucified him, and with him two others,
one on either side, with Jesus in the middle.

Standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother
and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas,
and Mary Magdalene.
When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple whom he loved,
he said to his mother, "Woman, behold, your son."
Then he said to the disciple,
"Behold, your mother."
And from that hour the disciple took her into his home.

After this, aware that everything was now finished,
in order that the Scripture might be fulfilled,
Jesus said, "I thirst."
There was a vessel filled with common wine.
So they put a sponge soaked in wine on a sprig of hyssop
and put it up to his mouth.
When Jesus had taken the wine, he said,
"It is finished."
And bowing his head, he handed over the Spirit.

Now since it was preparation day,
in order that the bodies might not remain on the cross on the sabbath,
for the sabbath day of that week was a solemn one,
the Jews asked Pilate that their legs be broken
and they be taken down.
So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first
and then of the other one who was crucified with Jesus.
But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead,
they did not break his legs,
but one soldier thrust his lance into his side,
and immediately Blood and water flowed out.
An eyewitness has testified, and his testimony is true
he knows that he is speaking the truth,
so that you also may come to believe.
For this happened so that the Scripture passage might be fulfilled:
Not a bone of it will be broken.
And again another passage says:
They will look upon him whom they have pierced.

After this, Joseph of Arimathea,
secretly a disciple of Jesus for fear of the Jews,
asked Pilate if he could remove the Body of Jesus.
And Pilate permitted it.
So he came and took his Body.
Nicodemus, the one who had first come to him at night,
also came bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes
weighing about one hundred pounds.

Lectionary for Mass for Use in the Dioceses of the United States, second typical edition, Copyright © 2001, 1998, 1997, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine. Neither this work nor any part of it may be reproduced, distributed, performed or displayed in any medium, including electronic or digital, without permission in writing from the copyright owner.

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