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GeoJSON and GML WFS not working after GeoServer upgrade


I've recently migrated Geoserver from a Geoserver 2.1 to a clean install of Geoserver 2.5 and copied across my data files.

However, I'm not finding that clicking Layer Preview, going to the All Formats drop-down and choosing GeoJSON returns this response:

 java.lang.NullPointerException: charsetName charsetName 

While choosing GML3.2 returns this response:

 Failed to find response for output format application/gml xml; version=3.2 

As these were both working on my old server, I guess there must be some configuration somewhere on the new one that needs doing, but can anyone guide me in the right direction?

The log file shows this for the GEOJSON request

2014-11-27 14:41:39,230 INFO [geoserver.wfs] - Request: getFeature service = WFS version = 1.0.0 baseUrl = http://myserver.com:80/geoserver/ query[0]: typeName[0] = {http://www.myserver.com/bosh}mytest maxFeatures = 50 outputFormat = application/json resultType = results 2014-11-27 14:41:39,232 INFO [wfs.json] - about to encode JSON 2014-11-27 14:41:39,496 ERROR [geoserver.ows] - java.lang.NullPointerException: charsetName at java.io.OutputStreamWriter.(OutputStreamWriter.java:99) at org.geoserver.wfs.json.GeoJSONGetFeatureResponse.write(GeoJSONGetFeatureResponse.java:136) at org.geoserver.wfs.WFSGetFeatureOutputFormat.write(WFSGetFeatureOutputFormat.java:190) at org.geoserver.ows.Dispatcher.response(Dispatcher.java:935) at org.geoserver.ows.Dispatcher.handleRequestInternal(Dispatcher.java:276) at org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.AbstractController.handleRequest(AbstractController.java:153) at org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.SimpleControllerHandlerAdapter.handle(SimpleControllerHandlerAdapter.java:48) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.doDispatch(DispatcherServlet.java:923) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.doService(DispatcherServlet.java:852) at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.processRequest(FrameworkServlet.java:882) at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.doGet(FrameworkServlet.java:778) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:617) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:717) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:290) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.geoserver.filters.ThreadLocalsCleanupFilter.doFilter(ThreadLocalsCleanupFilter.java:27) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:235) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.geoserver.filters.SpringDelegatingFilter$Chain.doFilter(SpringDelegatingFilter.java:74) at org.geoserver.wms.animate.AnimatorFilter.doFilter(AnimatorFilter.java:70) at org.geoserver.filters.SpringDelegatingFilter$Chain.doFilter(SpringDelegatingFilter.java:70) at org.geoserver.filters.SpringDelegatingFilter.doFilter(SpringDelegatingFilter.java:45) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:235) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.geoserver.platform.AdvancedDispatchFilter.doFilter(AdvancedDispatchFilter.java:49) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:235) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:311) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter$NestedFilterChain.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:68) at org.springframework.security.web.access.intercept.FilterSecurityInterceptor.invoke(FilterSecurityInterceptor.java:116) at org.springframework.security.web.access.intercept.FilterSecurityInterceptor.doFilter(FilterSecurityInterceptor.java:83) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter$NestedFilterChain.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:72) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:91) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:323) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter$NestedFilterChain.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:68) at org.springframework.security.web.access.ExceptionTranslationFilter.doFilter(ExceptionTranslationFilter.java:113) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter$NestedFilterChain.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:72) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:91) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:323) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerAnonymousAuthenticationFilter.doFilter(GeoServerAnonymousAuthenticationFilter.java:53) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:323) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter$NestedFilterChain.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:68) at org.springframework.security.web.authentication.www.BasicAuthenticationFilter.doFilter(BasicAuthenticationFilter.java:150) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter$NestedFilterChain.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:72) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:91) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerBasicAuthenticationFilter.doFilter(GeoServerBasicAuthenticationFilter.java:82) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:323) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter$NestedFilterChain.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:68) at org.springframework.security.web.context.SecurityContextPersistenceFilter.doFilter(SecurityContextPersistenceFilter.java:87) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerSecurityContextPersistenceFilter$1.doFilter(GeoServerSecurityContextPersistenceFilter.java:52) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter$NestedFilterChain.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:72) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:91) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:323) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:173) at org.geoserver.security.GeoServerSecurityFilterChainProxy.doFilter(GeoServerSecurityFilterChainProxy.java:134) at org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy.invokeDelegate(DelegatingFilterProxy.java:346) at org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy.doFilter(DelegatingFilterProxy.java:259) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:235) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.geoserver.filters.LoggingFilter.doFilter(LoggingFilter.java:75) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:235) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.geoserver.filters.GZIPFilter.doFilter(GZIPFilter.java:42) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:235) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.geoserver.filters.SessionDebugFilter.doFilter(SessionDebugFilter.java:47) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:235) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.geoserver.filters.FlushSafeFilter.doFilter(FlushSafeFilter.java:43) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:235) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.vfny.geoserver.filters.SetCharacterEncodingFilter.doFilter(SetCharacterEncodingFilter.java:109) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:235) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardWrapperValve.invoke(StandardWrapperValve.java:233) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContextValve.invoke(StandardContextValve.java:191) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHostValve.invoke(StandardHostValve.java:127) at org.apache.catalina.valves.ErrorReportValve.invoke(ErrorReportValve.java:102) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngineValve.invoke(StandardEngineValve.java:109) at org.apache.catalina.connector.CoyoteAdapter.service(CoyoteAdapter.java:293) at org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11Processor.process(Http11Processor.java:859) at org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11Protocol$Http11ConnectionHandler.process(Http11Protocol.java:602) at org.apache.tomcat.util.net.JIoEndpoint$Worker.run(JIoEndpoint.java:489) at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:701)

and for the GML request it's

2014-11-27 14:57:00,669 INFO [geoserver.wfs] - Request: getServiceInfo 2014-11-27 14:57:00,693 INFO [geoserver.wfs] - Request: getFeature service = WFS version = 1.0.0 baseUrl = http://myserver.com:80/geoserver/ query[0]: typeName[0] = {http://www.myserver.com/bosh}mytest maxFeatures = 50 outputFormat = GML2 resultType = results 2014-11-27 14:57:00,696 ERROR [geoserver.ows] - java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Null charset name at java.nio.charset.Charset.lookup(Charset.java:448) at java.nio.charset.Charset.forName(Charset.java:521) at org.geoserver.wfs.xml.GML2OutputFormat.prepare(GML2OutputFormat.java:203) at org.geoserver.wfs.xml.GML2OutputFormat.write(GML2OutputFormat.java:274) at org.geoserver.wfs.WFSGetFeatureOutputFormat.write(WFSGetFeatureOutputFormat.java:190) at org.geoserver.ows.Dispatcher.response(Dispatcher.java:935) at org.geoserver.ows.Dispatcher.handleRequestInternal(Dispatcher.java:276) at org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.AbstractController.handleRequest(AbstractController.java:153) at org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.SimpleControllerHandlerAdapter.handle(SimpleControllerHandlerAdapter.java:48) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.doDispatch(DispatcherServlet.java:923) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.doService(DispatcherServlet.java:852) at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.processRequest(FrameworkServlet.java:882) at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.doGet(FrameworkServlet.java:778) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:617) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:717) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:290) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.geoserver.filters.ThreadLocalsCleanupFilter.doFilter(ThreadLocalsCleanupFilter.java:27) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:235) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.geoserver.filters.SpringDelegatingFilter$Chain.doFilter(SpringDelegatingFilter.java:74) at org.geoserver.wms.animate.AnimatorFilter.doFilter(AnimatorFilter.java:70) at org.geoserver.filters.SpringDelegatingFilter$Chain.doFilter(SpringDelegatingFilter.java:70) at org.geoserver.filters.SpringDelegatingFilter.doFilter(SpringDelegatingFilter.java:45) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:235) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.geoserver.platform.AdvancedDispatchFilter.doFilter(AdvancedDispatchFilter.java:49) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:235) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:311) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter$NestedFilterChain.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:68) at org.springframework.security.web.access.intercept.FilterSecurityInterceptor.invoke(FilterSecurityInterceptor.java:116) at org.springframework.security.web.access.intercept.FilterSecurityInterceptor.doFilter(FilterSecurityInterceptor.java:83) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter$NestedFilterChain.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:72) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:91) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:323) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter$NestedFilterChain.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:68) at org.springframework.security.web.access.ExceptionTranslationFilter.doFilter(ExceptionTranslationFilter.java:113) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter$NestedFilterChain.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:72) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:91) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:323) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerAnonymousAuthenticationFilter.doFilter(GeoServerAnonymousAuthenticationFilter.java:53) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:323) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter$NestedFilterChain.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:68) at org.springframework.security.web.authentication.www.BasicAuthenticationFilter.doFilter(BasicAuthenticationFilter.java:150) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter$NestedFilterChain.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:72) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:91) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerBasicAuthenticationFilter.doFilter(GeoServerBasicAuthenticationFilter.java:82) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:323) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter$NestedFilterChain.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:68) at org.springframework.security.web.context.SecurityContextPersistenceFilter.doFilter(SecurityContextPersistenceFilter.java:87) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerSecurityContextPersistenceFilter$1.doFilter(GeoServerSecurityContextPersistenceFilter.java:52) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter$NestedFilterChain.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:72) at org.geoserver.security.filter.GeoServerCompositeFilter.doFilter(GeoServerCompositeFilter.java:91) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:323) at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:173) at org.geoserver.security.GeoServerSecurityFilterChainProxy.doFilter(GeoServerSecurityFilterChainProxy.java:134) at org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy.invokeDelegate(DelegatingFilterProxy.java:346) at org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy.doFilter(DelegatingFilterProxy.java:259) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:235) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.geoserver.filters.LoggingFilter.doFilter(LoggingFilter.java:75) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:235) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.geoserver.filters.GZIPFilter.doFilter(GZIPFilter.java:42) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:235) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.geoserver.filters.SessionDebugFilter.doFilter(SessionDebugFilter.java:47) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:235) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.geoserver.filters.FlushSafeFilter.doFilter(FlushSafeFilter.java:43) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:235) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.vfny.geoserver.filters.SetCharacterEncodingFilter.doFilter(SetCharacterEncodingFilter.java:109) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:235) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardWrapperValve.invoke(StandardWrapperValve.java:233) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContextValve.invoke(StandardContextValve.java:191) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHostValve.invoke(StandardHostValve.java:127) at org.apache.catalina.valves.ErrorReportValve.invoke(ErrorReportValve.java:102) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngineValve.invoke(StandardEngineValve.java:109) at org.apache.catalina.connector.CoyoteAdapter.service(CoyoteAdapter.java:293) at org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11Processor.process(Http11Processor.java:859) at org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11Protocol$Http11ConnectionHandler.process(Http11Protocol.java:602) at org.apache.tomcat.util.net.JIoEndpoint$Worker.run(JIoEndpoint.java:489) at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:701)

During the installation of the newer Geoserver, the Settings->Enabled box had been ticked against the workspace. Unticking this restored my ability to export GeoJSON and GML.


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The annual offshore petroleum exploration acreage release is part of the government’s strategy to promote offshore oil and gas exploration. Each year, the government invites companies to bid for the opportunity to invest in oil and gas exploration in Australian waters. The 2020 acreage release consists of 42 areas offshore of the Northern Territory, Western Australia, Victoria and the Ashmore and Cartier Islands.

This web map service provides visualisations of datasets prepared for the Technology Investment Roadmap Data Portal. The service has been developed using various mineral deposit, mine location and industrial plant location datasets sourced from the Australia’s Identified Mineral Resources (2019), produced by Geoscience Australia (http://dx.doi.org/10.11636/1327-1466.2018)

The AMSIS Distance To tool calculates the distance to a selected marine feature. The output is the distance to the nearest feature from the given location.

The data contained in this service is not authoritative and has not been updated since 2006. This web service contains the legacy data found in the Australian Marine Spatial Information System (AMSIS) between 2006 and 2015, with a currency date of 2006. To honour the original licensing arrangements with the data holders, only the WMS is available. Users will need to contact the agency responsible for the data to check current validity and spatial.

This web service shows areas or locations occupied by an existing high-density urban development or known individual building structures in peri-urban and remote locations. Data used in this service is of varying levels of coverage and quality since it is aggregated from a variety of sources. The intended purpose of the service is to provide preliminary, first-pass information about urban environment, building structures and their distribution i.

AUSIMAGE Aerial Imagery Canberra 2014 is a web service of high resolution aerial imagery (10 cm to 18 cm) over Canberra and Queanbeyan, acquired in February and April 2014. AUSIMAGE Aerial Imagery is a data product of Jacobs Group (Australia) Pty Ltd, released by Geoscience Australia as a web map service under license agreement.

This is the Acreage Release Marine Environmental Data compiled web service to be updated each year with acreage release. It contains the following publicly available datasets, for the 2016 Acreage Release - Marine Survey Towed-video Transects, Marine Sediments Database Samples, Australian Seascapes, Seabed Mud Content on the Northwest Shelf, Seabed Sand Content of the Northwest Shelf and Seabed Gravel Content of the Northwest Shelf.

This web service features Australian hydrogen projects and research centres that are actively in the investigation, construction, or operating phase, and that align with green hydrogen production methods as outlined in Australia's National Hydrogen Strategy. The purpose of this dataset is to provide a detailed snapshot of hydrogen activity across Australia, and includes location data, operator/organisation details, and descriptions for all hydrog.

Online resource API to AusPIX-enable (DGGS enable) spatial datasets for smaller areas of Australia. The main API will accept your geojson file, complete with data attributes, AusPIX DGGS enable it, and return as a download, the finished output. Download includes the features and attributes the source file had in it so the data is actually AusPIX enabled. Both manual and machine readable components are available. A further (2nd) API "test map" A.

This service presents the outgoing data services from the AusSeabed Coordination Tool. The Coordination tool provides two data services, the Upcoming Survey information layer and the National Priorities information layer. Upcoming Survey Layer This layer presents the extents of planned surveys that will be undertaken in the coming years within the Australian maritime region. The purpose of this web service is to broadcast information about upco.

Not current – This service has been deprecated in favor of the 2019 epoch, which includes amendments reflecting new boundary arrangements with Timor-Leste, which came into force on 30 August 2019. The Seas and Submerged Lands Act (SSLA) is the Australian legislation that provides the framework for Australia to declare the baselines, limits and zones provided under the first six parts of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. These .

Not current – This service has been deprecated in favor of the 2019 epoch, which includes amendments reflecting new boundary arrangements with Timor-Leste, which came into force on 30 August 2019. The Seas and Submerged Lands Act (SSLA) is the Australian legislation that provides the framework for Australia to declare the baselines, limits and zones provided under the first six parts of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. These .

The Australian Bathymetry and Topography web service includes the topography of Australia and the bathymetry of the adjoining Australian Exclusive Economic Zone. The area selected does not include data from Australia's marine jurisdiction offshore from the Territory of Heard and McDonald Islands and the Australian Antarctic Territory. The 2009 bathymetry data were compiled by Geoscience Australia from multibeam and single beam data, and along wit.

The service contains the Australian Coastal Geomorphology Environments, used to support a national coastal risk assessment. It describes the location and extent primary geomorphological environments (both dispositional and erosional) present along the Australia coast and the processes acting on the features within. It is cached service with a Web Mercator Projection.

The service contains the Australian Coastal Geomorphology Landform Subtype Classifications, used to support a national coastal risk assessment. It describes the location and extent of landform subtypes identifiable at scales between 1:25,000 and 1:10,000. It also provides further detail to the Landform Type, with particular reference to feature stability (e.g. dune types) and mobility (e.g. channel types). It is cached service with a Web Mercator.

The service contains the Australian Coastal Geomorphology Landform Subtype Classifications, used to support a national coastal risk assessment. It describes the location and extent of landform subtypes identifiable at scales between 1:25,000 and 1:10,000. It also provides further detail to the Landform Type, with particular reference to feature stability (e.g. dune types) and mobility (e.g. channel types). It is cached service with a Web Mercator.

The service contains the Australian Coastal Geomorphology Scale Guide, used to support a national coastal risk assessment. It includes the extents of various reclassified costal mapping products. It is cached service with a Web Mercator Projection.

The service contains the Australian Coastal Geomorphology Smartline, used to support a national coastal risk assessment. The 'Smartline' is a representation of the geomorphic features located within 500m of the shoreline, denoted by the high water mark. The service includes geomorphology themes and stability classes.

The Australian Coastal Sediment Compartments Web Service provide a hierarchical spatial classification relevant to the assessment of sediment movement in the Australian coastal zone, and represent a tool to assist coastal planning and management. Additional spatial data layers produced during the development of the compartments are provided for reference.

Australian Community Climate and Earth-System (ACCESS) Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) data is made available by the Bureau of Meteorology for registered subscribers such as GA. ACCESS-C3 (City) model is a forecast-only model performed every 6 hours and consists of grid coordinates covering domains around Sydney, Victoria and Tasmania, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide and Darwin. ACCESS Impact Modelling (ACCESS-IM) System utilise information from ACC.

This web map service provides the locations and status, as at 30 June 2020, of Australian operating mines, mines under development, mines on care and maintenance and resource deposits associated with critical minerals. Developing mines are deposits where the project has a positive feasibility study, development has commenced or all approvals have been received. Mines under care and maintenance and resource deposits are based on known resource es.

This service will be decommissioned on 19/4/2021 and will not be replaced. This service presents an aggregation of the Australian Exposure Information Platform (AEIP) data at Local Government Area (LGA) and Australian Statistical Geography Standard Statistical Areas Level 1 (SA1), as separate web service layers. The exposure information within these geographical polygon boundaries is the same exposure information accessible via the AEIP, .

This service will provide descriptions and images of the Australian Fundamental Gravity Network (AFGN) stations to Gravity Surveyors and the general public. The Australian National Gravity Database (ANGD) is underpinned by the AFGN, which provides the datum for gravity surveys conducted throughout Australia. The AFGN is a network of permanently marked and documented gravity base stations which allow gravity surveys to tie their surveys to a consi.

The Australian Geological Provinces Database contains descriptions and spatial extents of the fundamental geological elements of the Australian continent and offshore surrounds. Province types include sedimentary basins, tectonic provinces such as cratons and orogens, igneous provinces, and metallogenic provinces. Spatial data has been captured largely at approximately 1:1M scale for intended use between 1:2M and 1:5M scale.

The Land Cover map service includes information derived from the Dynamic Land Cover Dataset (2000-2008) containing Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) information. The service provides a base-line for identifying and reporting on change and trends in vegetation cover and extent. It is a cached service with a Web Mercator Projection.

The service includes an outline of the Australian shoreline. The information was derived from the Geodata 3 Topographic 250K 2007 data, with a nominal scale of 1:250,000. It is a cached service with a Web Mercator Projection.

This web service provides access to the Australian Stratigraphic Units Database (ASUD), the national authority on stratigraphic names in Australia. The database is maintained by Geoscience Australia on behalf of the Australian Stratigraphy Commission, a standing committee of the Geological Society of Australia. Where possible this service conforms to the GeoSciML v4.1 data transfer standard.

The Australian Submarine Canyons service identifies the location of 753 submarine canyons surrounding mainland Australia and its external territories, with associated metrics.

This service provides Australian surface hydrology, including natural and man-made features such as water courses (including directional flow paths), lakes, dams and other water bodies. The information was derived from the Surface Hydrology database, with a nominal scale of 1:250,000. The National Basins and Catchments are a national topographic representation of drainage areas across the landscape. Each basin is made up of a number of catchments.

The Australian Topographic base map service is seamless national dataset coverage for the whole of Australia. The map is a representation of the Geoscience Australia 250k topographic specification and portrays a detailed graphic representation of features that appear on the Earth's surface. These features include cultural, hydrography and relief themes. The service contains layer scale dependencies.

The National Bathymetry Derivatives Map of Australia Web Map Service contains national scale bathymetric derivatives - hillshaded bathymetry and topography, slope, aspect, topographic relief and topographic rugosity, which are available for download on Geoscience Australia's website. These bathymetric derivatives have been derived from the Australian Bathymetry and Topography Grid, June 2009. Each dataset is gridded to 9 arc second resolution (i.

This web map service provides visualisations of in-service, large-scale battery installations connected to the National Energy Market (NEM) power system in eastern and south-eastern Australia. Data compiled from the Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO).

This is an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) web service providing access to a subset of Australian geoscience samples data held by Geoscience Australia. The subset currently relates specifically to Australian Boreholes.

This is an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) web service providing access to Australian onshore and offshore borehole data. This web service is intended to complement the borehole GeoSciML-Portrayal v4.0 web service, providing access to the data in a simple, non-standardised structure. The borehole data includes Mineral Drillholes, Petroleum Wells and Water Bores along with a variety of others types. The dataset has been restricted to onshore .

This is an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) web service providing access to Australian onshore and offshore borehole data conforming to the GeoSciML version 4.0 specification. The borehole data includes Mineral Drillholes, Petroleum Wells and Water Bores along with a variety of others types. The dataset has been restricted to onshore and offshore Australian boreholes, and bores that have the potential to support geological investigations and a.

This web service displays the results of a marine survey conducted by Geoscience Australia in Commonwealth waters of the north-eastern Browse Basin (Caswell Sub-basin) between 9 October and 9 November 2014. The additional codes GA-0345 and GA-0346 refer to Geoscience Australia (GA) internal codes and TAN1411 is the vessel survey number given by the RV Tangaroa for 2014.

The Carbon Infrastructure Assessment and Planning (CIAP) Tile Index System is a set of nested tile indexes from 1:25000 through to 1:10000000 scales based on the ICSM map indexes. The product has been generated for use at national scale based in GDA94 projection. This product supports the best available information system (BAIS)as used by the CIAP application.

This service is designed to be used within the Carbon Capture and Storage application for a 3D visual representation. It is an elevation service that represents 800m below the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 1 Second over Australian Bathymetry Topography service. This is used as a basic gauge as to determine where CO2 should have enough pressure to be converted into a super fluid.

This polygon dataset contains the sedimentary basins of Australia ranked by their CO2 storage potential. See the National Carbon Mapping and Infrastructure Plan Australia report for details.

This web service contains the Casey Station Bathymetry survey that displays one seamless bathymetry grid of 1m resolution. The GA-0348 survey, acquired by Geoscience Australia, Royal Australian Navy and Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) on-board the Research Vessel Howard Burton from the 23rd of December 2014 to the 27th of January 2015. Further details of the data lineage can be found with the associated database.

This web service combines two surveys GA-4415 and GA-0348. The Casey Station Bathymetry survey displays one seamless bathymetry grid of 1m resolution. Further details of the data lineage can be found with the associated database. This web service is published with the permission of the CEO, Geoscience Australia.

The Clip and Zip tool takes an input polygon extent as WKT input and clips required featureclasses listed. The data is referenced from its own database with all layers projected to 4326 spatial reference. The output is a zipped file geodatabase with a copyright text file included.

The Criteria Assessment tool takes the input path or area created by the user and the input variables chosen to generate a heat map surface, KML surface, KMZ surface and PDF Report. This service is specifically for use within the Carbon Capture and Storage application.

This service is the processing inputs that are used within the Criteria Assessment geoprocessing service. This service is specifically for use within the Carbon Capture and Storage application.

The DMCii Mosaic service presents a sample of imagery captured by UK2-DMC satellite between December 2011 and April 2012.

Defence Prohibited and Training Areas. This data approximates the locations of Defence prohibited and training areas. Data included in this service is indicative only and should not be used for detailed planning. For 10.2 Server 2016

This service contains the limit and extent of Northern Australia as indicated in the 2015 White Paper on Developing Northern Australia. (see http://northernaustralia.gov.au/page/publications)

The Digital Earth Australia Hotspots web service has been developed as part of the Digital Earth Australia Hotspots national bushfire monitoring system. The service delivers hotspot data derived from (a growing number of) satellite-born instruments that detect light in the thermal wavelengths. The colour of the spot represents the time the Hotspot was last observed by a passing satellite (e.g. 0-2 hours). The colour does not indicate severity. Ty.

This service represents a combination of two data products, the DEM_SRTM_1Second dataset and the Australian_Bathymetry_Topography dataset. This service was created to support the CO2SAP (Co2 Storage application) Project to create a transect elevation graph within the application. This data is not available as a dataset for download as a Geoscience Australia product. The DEM_SRTM_1Second service represents the National Digital Elevation Model (DE.

This Service represents the 25 metre Digital Elevation Model (DEM), with national coverage. It is derived from merged LiDAR and various projects. New data will be added to the service as it becomes available.

This Service represents the 5 metre Digital Elevation Model (DEM), with national coverage. It is derived from merged LiDAR and various projects. New data will be added to the service as it becomes available.

This service represents the National Digital Elevation Model (DEM) 1 Second Smoothed Aspect product, derived from the National Smoothed Digital Elevation Model SRTM 1 Second. Aspect measures the direction in which a land surface slope faces. The direction is expressed in degrees from north.

This service represents the National Digital Elevation Model (DEM) 1 Second Percentage Slope product, derived from the National DEM SRTM 1 Second. Slope measures the inclination of the land surface from the horizontal. Percent slope represents this inclination as the ratio of change in height to distance.

This Service represents the National DEM 1 Second Hydrologically Enforced product derived from the National DEM SRTM 1 Second and National Watercourses, lakes and Reservoirs

This service represents the National Digital Elevation Model (DEM) 1 Second product derived from the National DEM SRTM 1 Second. The DEM represents ground surface topography, with vegetation features removed using an automatic process supported by several vegetation maps.

This service has been created specifically for display in the National Map and the chosen symbology may not suit other mapping applications. The Australian Topographic map service is seamless national dataset coverage for the whole of Australia. These data are best suited to graphical applications. These data may vary greatly in quality depending on the method of capture and digitising specifications in place at the time of capture. The web map s.

This service has been created specifically for display in the National Map and the chosen symbology may not suit other mapping applications. The Australian Topographic web map service is seamless national dataset coverage for the whole of Australia. These data are best suited to graphical applications. These data may vary greatly in quality depending on the method of capture and digitising specifications in place at the time of capture. The web m.

This service has been created specifically for display in the National Map and the symbology displayed may not suit other mapping applications. The service includes natural and man-made surface hydrology features, such as water courses (including directional flow paths), lakes, dams and other water bodies and marine themes. The data is sourced from Geoscience Australia 250K Topographic data and Surface Hydrology data. The service contains layer .

This service has been created specifically for display in the National Map and the symbology displayed may not suit other mapping applications. Information included within the service includes the linear locations for surface hydrology, including natural and man-made features such as water courses (including directional flow paths), lakes, dams and other water bodies and marine themes. The data is sourced from Geoscience Australia 250K Topograph.

This service has been created specifically for display in the National Map and the symbology displayed may not suit other mapping applications. Information included within the service includes the point locations for surface hydrology, including natural and man-made features such as water courses (including directional flow paths), lakes, dams and other water bodies and marine themes. The data is sourced from Geoscience Australia 250K Topographi.

This service has been created specifically for display in the National Map and the symbology displayed may not suit other mapping applications. Information included within the service includes the polygon/area locations for surface hydrology, including natural and man-made features such as water courses (including directional flow paths), lakes, dams and other water bodies and marine themes. The data is sourced from Geoscience Australia 250K Top.

This service has been created specifically for display in the National Map and the chosen symbology may not suit other mapping applications. These data are best suited to graphical applications. These data may vary greatly in quality depending on the method of capture and digitising specifications in place at the time of capture. The Australian Topographic web map service is seamless national dataset coverage for the whole of Australia. The map p.

This service has been created specifically for display in the National Map and the chosen symbology may not suit other mapping applications. The Australian Topographic web map service is seamless national dataset coverage for the whole of Australia. These data are best suited to graphical applications. These data may vary greatly in quality depending on the method of capture and digitising specifications in place at the time of capture. The web m.

This service has been created specifically for display in the National Map and the chosen symbology may not suit other mapping applications. The Australian Topographic web map service is seamless national dataset coverage for the whole of Australia. These data are best suited to graphical applications. These data may vary greatly in quality depending on the method of capture and digitising specifications in place at the time of capture. The web m.

This service has been created specifically for display in the National Map and the chosen symbology may not suit other mapping applications. The Australian Topographic web map service is seamless national dataset coverage for the whole of Australia. These data are best suited to graphical applications. These data may vary greatly in quality depending on the method of capture and digitising specifications in place at the time of capture. The web m.

This web service contains a selection of remotely sensed raster products used in the Exploring for the Future (EFTF) East Kimberley Groundwater Project. Selected products were derived from LiDAR, Landsat (5, 7, and 8), and Sentinel-2 data. Datasets include: 1) mosaic 5 m digital elevation model (DEM) with shaded relief 2) vegetation structure stratum and substratum classes 3) Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 20th, 50th, and 80th p.

This is a Web Map Service for the Estimates of Geological and Geophysical Surfaces (EGGS) data. The data comes from magnetic and boreholes measurements of the depth of stratigraphic and chronostraigraphic surfaces and boundaries.

The service contains the 2013 Earthquake Hazard map, as a raster and contours. This map shows the peak ground acceleration (response spectral period of 0.01 seconds) on rock expected for a 500 year return period, in units of g, evaluated for the geometric mean of the horizontal components. The map is the closest in return period and response spectral period to the current earthquake hazard map in the Australian Standard AS1170.4-2007.

The Exploring for the Future Project Areas web service depicts the spatial extents of project work undertaken as part of Geoscience Australia's $100.5 million initiative dedicated to boosting investment in resource exploration in Australia. Each project area extent has been generated by aggregating all project work sites into an envelope polygon. An indicative spend on each f the projects is also given.

This web service provides links to access pictures and documents for any geological or geophysical feature data that are delivered by complementary feature services for these data, including but not limited to: boreholes, field sites, structures, stratigraphic units, samples, mines, mineral deposits and mineral occurrences, along with descriptions of those objects.

This web service provides access to the Major Power Stations, Transmission Substations and Electricity Transmission Lines datasets. These datasets present the spatial locations of all known features in Australia.

This web service provides access to the Foundation Facilities Points dataset. This contains the spatial location of publicly available data showing private and public hospitals, aged care facilities, education facilities and emergency management facilities.

The Surface Geology web map service provides two seamless national coverages of Australian bedrock and surficial geology, compiled at 1:1 million scale (displays only at scales less than 1:1500000), and 1:2.5 million scale (displays only at scales greater than 1:1500000). It also contains 1:5 million scale geological regions and metamorphic geology. The service represents outcropping or near-outcropping bedrock units, and unconsolidated or poorl.

This web service depicts potential geological sequestration sites and has been compiled as part of the Australian Petroleum Cooperative Research Centre's GEODISC program (1999-2002).

The Australian Gazetteer service provides authoritative information on the location, and spelling of approved place names. The Australian Gazetteer is a subset of information held by the relevant State, Territory and Commonwealth naming authorities. Additional authoritative information has also been sourced from the Australian Hydrographic Service, Australian Antarctic Division and Geoscience Australia.

This web service provides access to the Geoscience Australia (GA) ISOTOPE database containing compiled age and isotopic data from a range of published and unpublished (GA and non-GA) sources. The web service includes point layers (WFS, WMS, WMTS) with age and isotopic attribute information from the ISOTOPE database, and raster layers (WMS, WMTS, WCS) comprising the Isotopic Atlas grids which are interpolations of the point located age and isotope.

This OGC Web Feature Service (WFS) delivers geological observations and sample descriptions from field sites associated with GA's geological mapping surveys in Australia and Antarctica. Descriptions include information on lithology, stratigraphic units, alteration, structural measurements, and many other geological attributes. Where possible this service conforms to the GeoSciML version 4.1 data standard.

This OGC Web Map Service (WMS) delivers geological observations and sample descriptions from field sites associated with GA's geological mapping surveys in Australia and Antarctica. Descriptions include information on lithology, stratigraphic units, alteration, structural measurements, and many other geological attributes. Where possible this service conforms to the GeoSciML version 4.1 data standard.

The Geomorphic Features of Australia's Marine Jurisdiction web service brings together various datasets produced by Geoscience Australia that describe the distribution and types of geomorphic features found on the seabed of Australia's marine jurisdiction. This jurisdiction covers Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone, including offshore islands and territories. Geomorphic features have been identified using the best available bathymetric data with.

Publicly available bathymetry and geophysical data has been used to map geomorphic features of the Antarctic continental margin and adjoining ocean basins at scales of 1:1-2 million. The key bathymetry datasets used were GEBCO08 and ETOPO2 satellite bathymetry (Smith & Sandwell 1997), in addition to seismic lines in key areas. Twenty-seven geomorphic units were identified based on interpretation of the seafloor bathymetry with polygons digitised .

Web Map Service of Geoscience Australia's national geophysical grids for magnetics, gravity and radiometrics. The service also contains outlines and descriptions of the airborne geophysical surveys used to compile the magnetic and radiometric grids.

This OGC Web Map Service delivers the geographical extents and descriptive metadata of geophysical datasets from all surveys conducted or managed by Geoscience Australia and its predecessor agencies, as well as from State and Territory geological survey agencies. Datasets include gravity, magnetic, radiometric, and electromagnetic data, and elevation data collected during geophysical surveys.

This web service contains marine geospatial data held by Geoscience Australia. It includes bathymetry and backscatter gridded data plus derived layers, bathymetry coverage information, bathmetry collection priority and planning areas, marine sediment data and other derived products. It also contains the 150 m and optimal resolution bathymetry, 5 m sidescan sonar (SSS) and synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) data collected during phase 1 and 2 marine s.

This OGC Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) provides access to Geoscience Australia's official catalogue of geoscientific and geospatial resources. The Geoscience Australia Product Catalogue contains metadata conforming to the ISO 19115-1 Geographic Information metadata standard, describing resource types including datasets, publications, services, models, software and more. The CSW provides a standards based interface for machines to search an.

This OGC WMS web service (generated by Geoserver) serves data from the Geoscience Australia Rock Properties database. The database stores the results of measurements of physical properties of rock and regolith specimens, including such properties as mass density, magnetic susceptibility, magnetic remanence and electrical conductivity. The database also records analytical process information such as method and instrument details where possible.

Geoscience Australia conducted a marine seismic survey (GA-0352) over various areas of the Gippsland Basin, between 5th of April to the 24th of April 2015, by the Gardline CGG vessel MV Duke. This service includes all the bathymetry data collected during the survey, with the data also available as a free download from the Geoscience Australia website. The aim of the survey was to acquire industry-standard precompetitive 2D seismic data, Multi-bea.

This web service provides access to geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical digital datasets that have been published by Geoscience Australia for the Great Artesian Basin (GAB).

This web service displays the elevation of the Great Artesian Basin water table. This dataset and associated metadata can be obtained from www.ga.gov.au, using catalogue number 75830.

The Houtman Sub basin 2D seismic survey web service display seven seamless bathymetry grids of 15m (shallow water) and 25m (deep water) resolution.

Geoscience Australia and its predecessors have analysed hydrochemistry of water sampled from boreholes (both pore water and groundwater), surface features, and rainwater. Sampling was undertaken during drilling or monitoring projects, and this dataset represents a significant subset of stored analyses. Water chemistry including isotopic data is essential to better understand groundwater origins, ages and dynamics, processes such as recharge and .

This web map service provides visualisations of datasets used as inputs into the analysis of prospective hydrogen production regions of Australia. The service has been developed using datasets sourced from the Department of Environment and Energy, PSMA Australia, Garrad Hassan Pacific Pty. Ltd., Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Department of Resources Energy and Tourism, Queensland Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, .

This web map service provides visualisations of the outputs from the five scenarios assessed in the analysis of prospective hydrogen production regions of Australia. Datasets used as inputs into the hydrogen production prospectivity analysis have been sourced from the Department of Environment and Energy, PSMA Australia, Garrad Hassan Pacific Pty. Ltd., Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Department of Resources Energy and Tourism, Queensland Depa.

This service shows the Principal Hydrogeological Divisions of Australia which was produced from the 1:5,000,000 scale Hydrogeology of Australia map (Jacobsen and Lau, 1987).

The Identify_Tool service includes the key set of infrastructure layers included in the LeastCostPath and ClipAndZip geoprocessing tools. The indentify query uses a dynamic tolerance and returns features including geometry as JSON.

The Web Feature Service is built from WEB_ALL_GEOCHEMISTRY and WEB_FINALISED_GEOCHEMISTRY tables hosted within GEOCHEM schema of oraprod. This service will provide a spatial distribution of the sample attributes as well as provide a spatial distribution of the analytical composition of the samples with respect to major elements, minor elements and rare earth elements.

The Australian Geothermal Association compiled data on the installed capacity of direct-use geothermal and geoexchange systems in Australia, including large-scale ground source heat pumps and hot sedimentary applications through to December 2018. Large-scale direct-use hot sedimentary aquifer systems includes systems to heat swimming pools or provide hydronic heating systems. In geoexchange systems, the Earth acts as a heat source or a heat sink.

This web map service provides visualisations of the datasets used as inputs into the analysis of potential for tholeiitic intrusion-hosted Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposits in Australia, and the resulting outputs. The datasets included in this service cover the four mineral system components incorporated in the conceptual model for the formation of tholeiitic intrusion-hosted Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposits : (1) energy sources or drivers of the ore-forming.

The Major Crustal Boundaries web service displays the synthesized output of more than 30 years of acquisition of deep seismic reflection data across Australia, where major crustal-scale breaks have been interpreted in the seismic reflection profiles, often inferred to be relict sutures between different crustal blocks. The widespread coverage of the seismic profiles now provides the opportunity to construct a map of major crustal boundaries acros.

The Marine Survey Geomorphology Web Map Service contains the local scale (1:10 000) interpreted geomorphology maps available for download on Geoscience Australia's website. These interpreted geomorphology maps have been produced for numerous marine survey programs conducted in Australian mainland and Antarctic waters by both Geoscience Australia and our collaborators. Layers are grouped by survey or region and where available include both the Geo.

The Marine Survey Multibeam Backscatter Web Map Service contains the highest-resolution multibeam backscatter grids available for download on Geoscience Australia's website. These backscatter grids were collected over numerous multibeam survey programs conducted in Australian mainland and Antarctic waters by both Geoscience Australia and our collaborators. Layers are grouped by survey or region and where available include both the Geoscience Aust.

The Marine Survey Multibeam Bathymetry Web Map Service contains the highest-resolution multibeam bathymetry grids available for download on Geoscience Australia's website. These bathymetry grids were collected over numerous multibeam survey programs conducted in Australian mainland and Antarctic waters by both Geoscience Australia and our collaborators. Layers are grouped by survey or region and where available include both the Geoscience Austral.

The Mineral Deposits and Mineral Resources OGC service provides data from Geoscience Australia’s OZMIN database in EarthResourceML 2.0 and ERML Lite 1.0 and associated contextual layers in simple WMS and WFS formats.

This service contains the NATMAP 1:250,000 scale maps, from the NATMAP Digital Maps 2008 DVD. The large scale single mosaic map covers the entire continent, and is based on the Geocentric Datum of Australia 1994 (GDA94) geographic projection. The maps have been revised using a variety of data sources, including SPOT and Landsat satellite imagery, other government agency information and data supplied by private companies and individuals. The origi.

NEXIS (National Exposure Information System) Residential Dwelling Density web service is a set of four raster layers representing the density of residential dwellings across Australia at different scales and resolutions.

3D seismic survey polygon area. The data within this layer only contains high level information regarding the individual surveys, not the actual survey. NOPIMS data is supplied by the petroleum industry. NOPIMS data is only offshore petroleum that belongs to the Commonwealth. A two dimensional (3D) seismic survey is a method of exploration used to capture seismic data beneath Earth's surface. 3D seismic provides continuous information of the subs.

This web service provides access to the National Aviation Facilities Datasets, representing the spatial locations of air traffic services centres, along with all known aviation control towers, major hangars, major fuel depots, major terminals and fire fighting and rescue facilities located within Australia, all complimented with feature attribution

The National Base Map service provides seamless topographic colour mapping for the whole of Australia, including the outer islands of Norfolk, Lord Howe & Macquarie Islands, the external territories of Cocos (Keeling), Christmas, Heard and McDonald Islands and the Australian Antarctic Territory. The service consists of data sourced from Geoscience Australia, Australian Antarctic Division & OpenStreetMap. The data for Christmas Island has been sou.

This service is produced for the National Map project. It provides seamless topographic greyscale mapping for the whole of Australia, including the external territories of Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Christmas Island, Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island. The service consists of Geoscience Australia data at smaller scales and OpenStreetMap data is used at larger scales. The service contains layer scale dependencies.

This service is produced for the National Map project. It provides seamless topographic greyscale mapping for the whole of Australia, including the external territories of Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Christmas Island, Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island. The service consists of Geoscience Australia data at smaller scales and OpenStreetMap data is used at larger scales. The service contains layer scale dependencies.

This web service provides access to the National Dam Walls dataset and presents the spatial locations of major dam walls located within Australia, all complemented with feature attribution.

This web service provides access to the National Desalination Plants dataset and presents the spatial locations of all the known major desalination plants within Australia, all complemented with feature attribution.

This web service provides access to the National Detention and Correctional Facilities datasets, representing the spatial locations of all known immigration detention and correctional facilities located within Australia, all complemented with feature attribution.

This web service provides access to the National Foreign Embassies and Consulates Datasets, representing the spatial locations of all known foreign embassies, high commissions and consulates located within Australia, all complemented with feature attribution.

The National Hazard Impact Risk Service for Tropical Cyclone Event Impact provides information on the potential impact to residential separate houses due to severe winds. The information is derived from Bureau of Meteorology tropical cyclone forecast tracks, in combination with building location and attributes from the National Exposure Information System and vulnerability models to define the level of impact. Impact data is aggregated to Statist.

This web service provides access to the National Judicial Courts dataset and presents the spatial locations of all the known Australian High Courts, Australian Federal Courts and the Australian Federal Circuit Courts located within Australia, all complemented with feature attribution.

This web service provides access to the National Liquid Fuel Facilities Datasets, representing the spatial locations of all known liquid fuel depots, refineries, terminals and petrol stations located within Australia, all complemented with feature attribution.

This web service provides access to the National Local Government Area Council Offices dataset and presents the spatial locations of all known Local Government Area council office facilities within Australia, all complemented with feature attribution.

The National Magnetic And Radiometric Grids service will provide a collection of magnetic and radiometric grids derived from various geophysical measurements made over continental Australia. This particular release will include magnetic and radiometric grids constructed in 2019.

This web service provides access to the Maritime Facilities Datasets, representing the spatial locations of major ports and public ferry terminals located within Australia and its Territories, all complimented with feature attribution.

This web service provides access to the National Oil and Gas Infrastructure datasets. These datasets present the spatial locations of onshore oil and gas pipelines for the transmission of oil and gas within mainland Australia. They also present the location of oil and gas platforms within Australia's territorial waters.

As part of the 2018 National Seismic Hazard Assessment (NSHA), we compiled the geographic information system (GIS) dataset to enable end-users to view and interrogate the NSHA18 outputs on a spatially enabled platform. It is intended to ensure the NSHA18 outputs are openly available, discoverable and accessible to both internal and external users. This geospatial product is derived from the dataset generated through the development of the NSHA18 .

This web service provides access to the National Telephone Exchanges dataset and presents the spatial locations of all the known telephone exchange facilities located within Australia, all complemented with feature attribution.

This web service provides access to the National Wastewater Treatment Facilities dataset and presents the spatial locations of all the known wastewater treatment facilities within Australia, all complemented with feature attribution.

This service is produced for the NationalMap project. It provides seamless topographic colour mapping for the whole of Australia, including the external territories of Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Christmas Island, Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island. The service consists of Geoscience Australia data at smaller scales and OpenStreetMap data is used at larger scales.

This service will be decommissioned on 6/7/2021. The replacement service with existing data is located at https://services.ga.gov.au/gis/rest/services/NationalBaseMap_GreyScale/MapServer This service is produced for the National Map project. It provides seamless topographic greyscale mapping for the whole of Australia, including the external territories of Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Christmas Island, Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island. .

This web service provides access to datasets generated by the North Australian Craton (NAC) Iron Oxide Copper Gold (IOCG) Mineral Potential Assessment. Two outputs were created: a comprehensive assessment, using all available spatial data, limiting data where possible to capture mineral systems older than 1500 ma, and a coverage assessment, which is constrained to data that have no reliance on outcrop or age of mineralisation.

This service contains the limit and extent of Northern Australia as defined by the Northern Australia Infrastructure Facility Act 2016 (https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2016A00041).

Australia - Offshore Minerals Act 1994 - Mineral Blocks - epoch 2014a. This service displays the Australian Mineral Blocks - Aligned with the current Australian Maritime Boundary Dataset. Refer to the metadata of the geodatabase for a detailed abstract relating to the data.

Offshore Minerals Act (OMA 1994) - Mineral Blocks. This service displays the most recent realisation of the Mineral Blocks as defined under the Offshore Minerals Act 1994 (OMA 1994) as realised in GDA94. Block data extends beyond the area of operation of the OMA and includes areas of coastal waters and land within the constitutional limits of the States and Territories.

Petroleum Blocks cut to the AMB 2014a epoch. The service contains the Blocks as defined under Section 33 (3) of the Offshore Petroleum and Greenhouse Gas Storage Act 2006. Coverage includes indicative areas of coastal waters and land, within the constitutional limits of the States and territories.

OPGGSA 2006 - Petroleum Blocks. This service displays the most recent realisation of the Petroleum Blocks as defined under Section 33 (3) of the Offshore Petroleum and Greenhouse Gas Storage Act 2006 (OPGGSA 2006) as realised in GDA94. Block data extends beyond the area of operation of the OPGGSA and includes areas of coastal waters and land within the constitutional limits of the States and Territories.

This service is for the 'OZTemp Interpreted Temperature at 5km Depth' image of Australia product. It includes an interpretation of the crustal temperature at 5km depth, based on the OZTemp bottom hole temperature database and additional confidential company data.

This service includes well geothermal temperature and location, extracted (from the OZTemp database), and used to create the 'OZTemp Interpreted Temperature at 5km Depth' image of Australia.

This web service contains information on seabed sediments and geochemistry for samples collected in 2012 from the Oceanic Shoals Commonwealth Marine Reserve in the Timor Sea under the National Environmental Research Program Marine Biodiversity Hub.

This web service contains sediment and geochemistry data for the Oceanic Shoals Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) in the Timor Sea collected by Geoscience Australia during September and October 2012, on RV Solander (survey GA0339/SOL5650).

The Onshore Seismic Surveys of Australia Web Map Service depicts all land seismic traverses across the Australian continent and its margins. The service provides access to raw and processed data in SEGY format for each survey. The metadata includes acquisition reports, processing reports, processed images, logs.

The Source Rock and Fluids Atlas delivery and publication services provide up-to-date information on petroleum (organic) geochemical and geological data from Geoscience Australia's Organic Geochemistry Database (ORGCHEM). The sample data provides the spatial distribution of petroleum source rocks and their derived fluids (natural gas and crude oil) from boreholes and field sites in onshore and offshore Australian basins. The services provide char.

The annual offshore petroleum exploration acreage release is part of the government’s strategy to promote offshore oil and gas exploration. Each year, the government invites companies to bid for the opportunity to invest in oil and gas exploration in Australian waters. The 21 areas shown have been nominated by petroleum industry stakeholders to be considered for the 2021 acreage release. Areas nominated for release will not receive endorsement fr.

This web service displays potential port locations for hydrogen export. This data is directly referenced to ‘The Australia Hydrogen Hubs Study – Technical Study’ by ARUP for the COAG Energy Council Hydrogen Working Group, 2019’.

The Print Service provides PDF map prints via an online interface. This service prints detailed PDF maps, including scale bar and marginalia.

This web map service provides visualisations of datasets prepared for the Technology Investment Roadmap Data Portal. The service has been developed using various industrial plant location datasets sourced from the Australia’s Identified Mineral Resources (2019), produced by Geoscience Australia (http://dx.doi.org/10.11636/1327-1466.2019)

Geoscience Australia and Monash University have produced a series of renewable energy capacity factor maps of Australia. Solar photovoltaic, concentrated solar power, wind (150 m hub height) and hybrid wind and solar capacity factor maps are included in this web service. Solar Photovoltaic capacity factor map The minimum capacity factor is <10% and the maximum is 25%. The map is derived from Bureau of Meteorology (2020) data. The scientific colo.

This web map service provides location information and details about commodities exported from shipping ports around Australia. This dataset has been collated by Geoscience Australia from publicly available information as a guide only.

This service is the processing inputs that are used within the Route Planning geoprocessing service. This service is specifically for use within the Carbon Capture and Storage application.

This Web Map Service displays the spatial extents of scanned images of all 1:250 000 scale geological maps of Australia. The service contains information on the edition, publication date, and map publisher, and has links to map images available as 125 DPI and 250 DPI resolution JPG files.

The sea level service is designed to be used within the Carbon Capture and Storage application for 3D visual representation. It is an elevation service that represents the sea and elevation 0.

The Solid Geology of the North Australian Craton web service delivers a seamless chronostratigraphic solid geology dataset of the North Australian Craton that covers north of Western Australia, Northern Territory and north-west Queensland. The data maps stratigraphic units concealed under cover by effectively removing the overlying cover (Liu et al., 2015). This dataset comprises five chronostratigraphic time slices, namely: Cenozoic, Mesozoic, P.

The Australian Lithospheric Architecture Magnetotelluric Project (AusLAMP) aims to collect long period magnetotelluric data on a half degree (

55 km) grid across the Australian continent. New datasets have been collected in Northern Australia, as part of Geoscience Australia’s Exploring for the Future (EFTF) program with in-kind contributions from the Northern Territory Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Queensland. This web service d.

The service contains all maritime boundaries treaties signed by Australia (NOT ALL ARE IN FORCE). Where the original datum of the treaty is not specified as GDA94, all defined points have been transformed by Geoscience Australia's National Geospatial Reference Systems Section to GDA94.

As part of the 2018 Tropical Cyclone Hazard Assessment (TCHA), we compiled the geospatial raster dataset that can be accessible to internal and external users via ArcGIS online and can be integrated for building additional geoprocessing applications. This web service gives more stable and easy access to data and interactive maps. With having separate geospatial layers for each recurrence interval- i.e. 5 through 10000 years, users can toggle betw.

The Upper Burdekin Basalt extents web service delivers province extents, detailed geology, spring locations and inferred regional groundwater contours for the formations of the Nulla and McBride Basalts. This work has been carried out as part of Geoscience Australia's Exploring for the Future program.

The Upper Burdekin Chloride Mass Balance Recharge web service depicts the recharge rates have been estimated at borehole locations in the Nulla and McBride basalt provinces. Using rainfall rates, rainfall chemistry and groundwater chemistry, the recharge rates have been estimated through the Chloride Mass Balance approach.

The Tasselled Cap Wetness (TCW) percentage exceedance composite represents the behaviour of water in the landscape, as defined by the presence of water, moist soil or wet vegetation at each pixel through time. The summary shows the percentage of observed scenes where the Wetness layer of the Tasselled Cap transform is above the threshold, i.e. where each pixel has been observed as ‘wet’. Areas that retain surface water or wetness in the landscape.

The WOfS summary statistic represents, for each pixel, the percentage of time that water is detected at the surface relative to the total number of clear observations. Due to the 25-m by 25-m pixel size of Landsat data, only features greater than 25m by 25m are detected and only features covering multiple pixels are consistently detected. The WOfS summary statistic was produced over the McBride and Nulla Basalt provinces for the entire period of .

The WOfS summary statistic represents, for each pixel, the percentage of time that water is detected at the surface relative to the total number of clear observations. Due to the 25-m by 25-m pixel size of Landsat data, only features greater than 25m by 25m are detected and only features covering multiple pixels are consistently detected. The WOfS summary statistic was produced over the McBride and Nulla Basalt provinces for the entire period of .

This web service provides access to groundwater raster products for the Upper Burdekin region, including: inferred relative groundwater recharge potential derived from weightings assigned to qualitative estimates of relative permeability based on mapped soil type and surface geology Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) used to map vegetation with potential access to groundwater in the basalt provinces, and base surfaces of basalt infer.

This web service provides access to the Waste Management Facilities dataset and presents the spatial locations of all the known waste management, recycling and reprocessing facilities within Australia, all complemented with feature attribution.

World Bathymetry Base Map. The service includes world bathymetry data, and ocean, country, population and natural features. The information was derived from various sources, including Natural Earth and National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) ETOPO2 Global 2 Elevations from the September 2001 data. The service contains layer scale dependencies.

This service includes world bathymetry, elevation (hillshade), and satellite imagery data, and ocean, country, population and natural features. The information was derived from various sources, including Natural Earth and Landsat Imagery. It is a cached service with a Web Mercator Projection. The service contains layer scale dependencies.

This service includes world bathymetry, elevation (hillshade), and satellite imagery data, and ocean, country, population and natural features. The information was derived from various sources, including Natural Earth and Landsat Imagery. It is a cached service with a Web Mercator Projection. The service contains layer scale dependencies.


How to create a WFS service

There are two ways you can create a WFS service: from a map or from a geodatabase.

Creating a WFS service from a map

You can create a WFS service by starting with an ArcMap map document (.mxd). Publish the map document as an ArcGIS Server map service using either Manager or ArcCatalog. When prompted for the capabilities you want to enable, check WFS. This creates a URL that any WFS client can use to access the service.

If you need help publishing the service, see Publishing a GIS resource to the server.

The map document is just a specification of the layers that will be available in your WFS service. Symbology, query definitions, and field aliases defined at the layer level will not transfer to the WFS service, because the purpose of the service is to expose the features in the data. To expose the visual properties of your map through OGC specifications, use a WMS service. Remember the following things when publishing a WFS service from a map document:

  • If you want the WFS service to support transactions for editing (WFS-T), the source data for all the layers in the map must come from the same ArcSDE geodatabase. Otherwise, the map can contain layers from multiple sources.
  • Two or more layers in the map cannot reference the same feature class or have the same name. If they do, you may receive the error Workspace item or name is a duplicate.
  • The name of the layer will be the type name returned from WFS.
  • To publish data through a WFS service, the data must be registered with the geodatabase, including SDE views.
  • Since WFS only works with features, any raster layers in the map will be excluded from the service.
  • WFS services do not support virtual classes such as joins, relates, XY events, routes, or coverages or Data Interoperability extension-based layers.

If you use your source map document for many purposes other than publishing WFS services, you may need to make a copy of the map document that will act as the source document for the WFS service. You can then alter the copy so that it meets the above requirements without affecting your original map document.

Creating a WFS service from a geodatabase

Another way to create a WFS service is by starting with a geodatabase. This can be any type of geodatabase: personal, file, or ArcSDE. Publish the geodatabase as an ArcGIS Server geodata service using either Manager or ArcCatalog. When prompted for the capabilities you want to enable, check WFS. This creates a URL that any WFS client can use to access the service.

When creating a WFS service from a geodata service, all the feature classes to which the connected user has access will be exposed in the service. Also, only feature classes, tables, and SDE views that are registered with the geodatabase will be exposed in the service.

If you need help publishing the service, see Publishing a GIS resource to the server.

Creating a WFS service from a geodatabase allows you to edit the features as well as read and query them.

Notes on creating WFS services

If a feature class in your map or geodatabase uses a spatial reference that cannot be represented with an EPSG code, WGS 84 will be used as the spatial reference for that feature class.

Feature classes in your map or geodatabase that use an unknown spatial reference system will be ignored by the WFS service.


OGC GroundWaterML 2 – GW2IE FINAL REPORT

To obtain additional rights of use, visit http://www.opengeospatial.org/legal/.

This document is not an OGC Standard. This document presents a discussion of

technology issues considered in an initiative of the OGC Interoperability Program. This document does not represent an official position of the OGC. It is subject to change without notice and may not be referred to as an OGC Standard. However, the discussions in this document could very well lead to the definition of an OGC Standard. Recipients of this document are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Document type: OGC® Public Engineering Report Document subtype: NA

Permission is hereby granted by the Open Geospatial Consortium, ("Licensor"), free of charge and subject to the terms set forth below, to any person obtaining a copy of this Intellectual Property and any associated documentation, to deal in the Intellectual Property without restriction (except as set forth below), including without limitation the rights to implement, use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, and/or sublicense copies of the Intellectual Property, and to permit persons to whom the Intellectual Property is furnished to do so, provided that all copyright notices on the intellectual property are retained intact and that each person to whom the Intellectual Property is furnished agrees to the terms of this Agreement.

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This license is effective until terminated. You may terminate it at any time by destroying the Intellectual Property together with all copies in any form. The license will also terminate if you fail to comply with any term or condition of this Agreement. Except as provided in the following sentence, no such termination of this license shall require the termination of any third party end-user sublicense to the Intellectual Property which is in force as of the date of notice of such termination. In addition, should the Intellectual Property, or the operation of the Intellectual Property, infringe, or in LICENSOR’s sole opinion be likely to infringe, any patent, copyright, trademark or other right of a third party, you agree that LICENSOR, in its sole discretion, may terminate this license without any compensation or liability to you, your licensees or any other party. You agree upon termination of any kind to destroy or cause to be destroyed the Intellectual Property together with all copies in any form, whether held by you or by any third party.

1.2 Historical background . 13

2.1 XML implementation . 14

2.2 Use of vocabularies . 14

4. Terms and Definitions . 16

5.1 Requirements class . 19

5.5 External package abbreviations . 21

5.8 Finding requirements and recommendations . 23

6.2 Overview of Observations & Measurements . 24

6.4 Overview of GeoSciML 3.2 . 25

7.1 Hydrogeological Units . 26

7.6 Conceptual Model Specification . 28

7.6.9 GW_BiologicConstituent . 37

7.6.10 GW_ChemicalConstituent . 38

7.6.13 GW_ConstituentRelation . 41

7.6.26 GW_ManagementArea . 53

7.6.27 GW_MaterialConstituent . 56

7.6.29 GW_MonitoringSite . 56

7.6.33 GW_UnitFluidProperty . 58

7.6.34 GW_UnitProperties . 59

7.6.35 GW_UnitVoidProperty . 59

7.6.36 GW_Vulnerability . 60

8.1 Logical Model Specification . 65

8.1.5 ConstructionComponent . 78

8.1.8 FiltrationComponent . 80

8.1.10 GW_GeologyLogCoverage . 82

8.1.15 SealingComponent . 86

8.1.16 WellConstruction . 87

9. Requirements Classes (normative) . 88

9.1 Abstract requirements classes: GWML2 core logical model . 88

9.2 Requirement class: GWML2-Main . 90

9.2.1 Feature of interest for Association classes . 90

9.3 Requirement class: GWML2-Constituent . 92

9.4 Requirement class: GWML2-Flow . 93

9.5.3 Relative position . 95

9.6 Requirement class: GWML2-WellConstruction . 97

9.7 Requirement class: Vertical Well (profile) . 98

9.8 Requirement Class: GeologyLog (profile) . 98

9.9 Requirement class: Aquifer test (profile) . 100

9.9.1 Aquifer Test O&M mapping . 102

9.9.3 SF_SamplingFeature properties . 103

9.9.5 Aquifer test overview . 108

10. XML Implementation (normative) . 109

10.1.2 By-Reference properties . 113

10.2 Requirement class: GWML2-Main XML encoding . 114

10.3 Requirement class: GWML2-Constituent XML encoding . 116

10.4 Requirement class: GWML2-Flow XML encoding . 116

10.5 Requirement class: GWML2-Well XML encoding . 117

10.5.2 Monitoring Sites . 123

10.6 Requirement class: GWML2-WellConstruction XML encoding . 123

10.7 Requirement class: GWML2-Well-Vertical XML encoding (profile) . 125

10.8 Requirement class: GeologicLog XML encoding . 125

10.9 Requirement class: Aquifer test XML encoding . 127

A.2 Conformance classes – UML packages . 132

A.2.1 Conformance class: GWML 2.0 core logical model (Abstract) . 132

A.2.2 Conformance class: GWML 2.0 main logical model . 134

A.2.3 Conformance class: GWML 2.0 constituent logical model . 135

A.2.4 Conformance class: GWML 2.0 flow logical model . 135

A.2.5 Conformance class: GWML 2.0 Well logical model . 135

A.2.6 Conformance class GWML 2.0 Construction logical model . 138

A.2.7 Conformance class: GWML 2.0 Vertical Well logical model . 139

A.2.8 Conformance class: GWML 2.0 Geologic logs . 140

A.2.9 Conformance class : GWML 2.1 Aquifer Test . 140

A.3 Conformance classes – XML encoding . 142

A.3.1 Conformance classes: xml-rules . 142

A.3.2 Conformance classes : GWML2-Main xml encoding . 144

A.3.3 Conformance classes : GWML2-Constituent xml encoding . 144

A.3.4 Conformance classes : GWML2-flow xml encoding . 145

A.3.5 Conformance classes: GWML2-well xml encoding . 145

A.3.6 Conformance classes : GWML2-construction xml encoding . 147

A.3.7 Conformance classes: GWML2-vertical well xml encoding . 148

3. Environmental Use Case . 158

4. Scientific Use Case . 161

I.

Abstract

This document describes a conceptual model, logical model, and GML/XML encoding rules for the exchange of groundwater data. In addition, this document provides GML/XML encoding examples for guidance.

Ii.

Keywords

The following are keywords to be used by search engines and document catalogues.

ogcdoc, OGC document, groundwater, hydrogeology, aquifer, water well, observation, GroundwaterML, GWML2, well construction, UML, GML

Iii.

Preface

The primary goal of this document is to capture the semantics, schema, and encoding syntax of key groundwater data, in order to enable information systems to interoperate with such data.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. The Open Geospatial Consortium shall not be held

responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Recipients of this document are requested to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent claims or other intellectual property rights of which they may be aware that might be infringed by any implementation of the standard set forth in this document, and to provide supporting documentation.

Iv.

Submitting organizations

The following organizations submitted this Document to the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC):

฀ Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), Canada

฀ U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), United States of America

฀ Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia

฀ Bureau of Meteorology (BOM), Australia

฀ Federation University Australia (FedUni), Australia

฀ Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), France

฀ Geological Surveys of Germany (GSG), Germany

which this document was developed:

฀ Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), Canada

฀ U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), United States of America

฀ Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia

฀ Federation University Australia (FedUni), Australia

฀ Bureau of Meteorology (BOM), Australia

฀ European Commission, Directorate General – Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Union

฀ Polish Association for Spatial Information

฀ Polish Geological Institute (PGI), Poland

฀ Geological Surveys of Germany (GSG), Germany

฀ Salzburg University (U Salzburg), Austria

฀ Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), France

฀ British Geological Survey (BGS), U.K.

฀ International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre (IGRAC), UNESCO

V.

Submitters

All questions regarding this submission should be directed to the editor or the submitters:

Name Affiliation

Vi.

Future Work

Future work involves coordination with ongoing OGC hydrology standards for surface water and time series observations, to demonstrate how these emerging standards can operate together.

1.

Scope

This document is a conceptual and encoding specification for the representation of core groundwater data. GroundWaterML2 is implemented as an application schema of the Geography Markup Language (GML) version 3.2.1, and re-uses entities from other GML application schema, most notably the OGC Observations & Measurements standard and the GeoSciML 3.2.0 standard from the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS).

GroundWaterML2.1 (GWML2) is designed to enable a variety of data exchange scenarios. These scenarios are captured by its five motivating use cases, including:

(1) a commercial use-case focused on drilling water wells with knowledge of aquifers

(2) a policy use case concerned with the management of groundwater resources (3) an environmental use-case that considers the role of groundwater in natural

(4) a scientific use-case concerned with modeling groundwater systems and (5) a technologic use-case concerned with interoperability between diverse

information systems and associated data formats.

GWML2 is designed in three stages, each consisting of a schema that builds on the previous stages. The three schemas include:

(1) Conceptual (UML): a technology-neutral schema denoting the semantics of the

(2) Logical (UML): a GML-specific schema that incorporates the OGC suite of

(3) XML schema (XSD): a GML syntactical encoding of the logical schema.

In addition, this specification describes general and XML-specific encoding requirements, general and XML-specific conformance tests, and XML encoding examples. The specification is designed for future extension into other non-XML encoding syntaxes, which would require each such encoding to describe the related schema, requirements and conformance classes, as well as provide examples.

The GroundWaterML2 Logical and XML schemas are organized into 6 modular packages.

(3) GWML2-Flow: groundwater flow within and between containers. (4) GWML2-Well: water wells, springs, and monitoring sites.

(5) GWML2-WellConstruction: the components used to construct a well.

(6) GWML2-AquiferTest: the elements composing an aquifer test (e.g. pumping test).

Altogether, the schemas and packages represent a precise description of the key features associated with the groundwater domain, as well as their properties and relationships. This provides a semantics and syntax for the correct machine interpretation of the data, which promotes proper use of the data in further analysis. Existing systems can use GWML2 to ‘bridge’ between existing schema or systems, allowing consistency of the data to be maintained and enabling interoperability.

A significant portion of the global water supply can be attributed to groundwater

resources. Effective management of such resources requires the collection, management and delivery of related data, but these are impeded by issues related to data availability, distribution, fragmentation, and heterogeneity: collected data are not all readily available and accessible, available data is distributed across many agencies in different sectors, often thematically fragmented, and similar types of data are diversely structured by the various data providers. This situation holds both within and between political entities, such as countries or states, thereby impairing groundwater management across all jurisdictions. Groundwater data networks are an emerging solution to this problem as they couple data providers through a unified data delivery vehicle, thus reducing or eliminating distribution, fragmentation, and heterogeneity through the incorporation of standards for data access and data content. The relative maturity of OGC data access standards, such as the Web Feature Service (WFS) and Sensor Observation Service (SOS), combined with the rise of water data networks, have created a need for GroundWaterML2 (GWML2), a common groundwater data specification.

1.2 Historical background

Several activities have influenced the development of GWML2:

฀ GWML1: a GML application schema for groundwater data developed at Natural Resources Canada used to exchange groundwater data within Canada, between Canada and the USA, and in some other international initiatives (Boisvert & Brodaric, 2012).

฀ GWIE1: an interoperability experiment within the OGC HDWG, in which groundwater data was shared across the USA-Canada border (Brodaric & Booth, 2011).

2.

Conformance

This specification has been written to be compliant with the OGC Specification Model – A Standard for Modular Specification (OGC 08-131r3). Extensions of this specification shall themselves be conformant to the OGC Specification Model.

2.1 XML implementation

The XML implementation (encoding) of the conceptual and logical groundwater schemas is described using the XML Schema language and Schematron.

Requirements for onestandardization target type are considered:

i.e. XML documents that encode groundwater data. As data producing applications should generate conformant data instances, the requirements and tests described in this specification effectively also apply to that target.

Conformance with this specification shall be checked using all the relevant tests specified in Annex A (normative) of this document. The framework, concepts, and methodology for testing, and the criteria to be achieved to claim conformance are specified in ISO 19105: Geographic information — Conformance and Testing. In order to conform to this OGC™encoding specification, a standardization target shall implement the core

conformance class, and choose to implement any one of the other conformance classes (i.e. extensions).

All requirements-classes and conformance-classes described in this document are owned by the standard(s) identified.

2.2 Use of vocabularies

Controlled vocabularies, also known as code-lists, are used in data exchange to identify particular concepts or terms, and sometimes relationships between them. For example, an organization may define a controlled vocabulary for all observed phenomena, such as water quality parameters, that are to be exchanged between parties. Some of these definitions may be related by hierarchies or through other relationships such as equivalence.

GroundWaterML2.1 does not define a set of vocabularies for groundwater data exchange in this version. It is envisaged that specific communities will develop local vocabularies for data exchange within the community. Future work within the Hydrology Domain Working Group could address standardized controlled vocabularies for the groundwater domain. Such vocabularies require a governance structure that allows changes to be made as definitions evolve, possibly using the OGC definition namespace

(http://www.opengis.net/def/groundwaterml/2.1/), which is governed by the OGC

outlined in OGC 09-048 (OGC-NA – Name type specification – definitions).

2.3 Groundwater data

Groundwater data conforming to this specification are encoded in GML-conformant XML documents, for this version of GWML2. It is anticipated that future versions or extensions will develop additional encodings such as JSON or RDF. The standard

MIME-type and sub-type for GML data should be used to indicate the encoding choice as specified in MIME Media Types for GML, namely

3.

References

The following normative documents contain provisions that, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this document. For dated references, subsequent

amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications do not apply. For undated references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies.

OGC 06-121r9, OGC®Web Services Common Standard

ISO 19103:2005 – Conceptual Schema Language

ISO 8601- Data elements and interchange formats – Information interchange – Representation of dates and times

OGC 10-004r3 Abstract Specification Topic 20 – Observations and Measurements (aka ISO 19156:2011)

OGC 08-015r2 Abstract Specification Topic 2 – Spatial Referencing by Coordinates (aka ISO 19111:2007)

OGC 07-011 Abstract Specification Topic 6 – Schema for Coverage geometry and functions (aka ISO 19123:2005)

OGC 01-011 Abstract Specification Topic 11 – Geographic information — Metadata (aka ISO 19115:2003)

OGC 07-036 Geography Markup Language (aka ISO 19136:2007)

OGC 10-004r1Observations and Measurements v2.0

http://www.opengis.net/doc/AS/Topic20 (also published as ISO/DIS 19156:2010, Geographic information — Observations and Measurements)

OGC 08-094r1 SWE Common Data Model Encoding Standard v2.0 http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/swecommon

Schematron: ISO/IEC 19757-3, Information technology — Document Schema Definition Languages (DSDL) — Part 3: Rule-based validation — Schematron

OGC 08-131r3 The Specification Model — A Standard for Modular specifications http://www.opengis.net/doc/POL/SPEC

Unified Code for Units of Measure (UCUM) – Version 1.8, July 2009

Unified Modeling Language (UML). Version 2.3. May 2010.

Extensible Markup Language (XML) – Version 1.0 (Fourth Edition), August 2006

XML Schema – Version 1.0 (Second Edition), October 2004

4.

Terms and Definitions

This document uses the terms defined in Sub-clause 5.3 of [OGC 06-121r8], which is based on the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, Rules for the structure and drafting of

International Standards. In particular, the word “shall” (not “must”) is the verb form used to indicate a requirement to be strictly followed to conform to this standard.

For the purposes of this document, the following additional terms and definitions apply.

Feature that acts as a function to return values from its range for any direct position within its spatial, temporal or spatiotemporal domain.

[ISO 19123:2005, definition 4.17]

Feature of a type defined within a particular application domain.

NOTE: This may be contrasted with observations and sampling features, which are features of types defined for cross-domain purposes.

Basic information item of an XML document containing child elements, attributes and character data.

NOTE: From the XML Information Set ― each XML document contains one or more elements, the boundaries of which are either delimited by start-tags and end-tags, or, for empty elements, by an empty-element tag. Each element has a type, identified by name, sometimes called its ‘generic identifier’ (GI), and may have a set of attribute

specifications. Each attribute specification has a name and a value.

Abstraction of a real-world phenomena.

[ISO 19101:2002, definition 4.11]

GML application schema

Application schema written in XML Schema in accordance with the rules specified in ISO 19136:2007.

XML document with a root element that is one of the elements AbstractFeature, Dictionary or TopoComplex, specified in the GML schema or any element of a substitution group of any of these elements.

Schema components in the XML namespace ―http://www.opengis.net/gml/3.2ǁ as specified in ISO 19136:2007.

Set of operations having the objective of determining the value of a quantity.

Act of observing a property.

NOTE: The goal of an observation may be to measure or otherwise determine the value of a property.

[ISO 19156:2011 definition 4.10]

observation procedure

Method, algorithm or instrument, or system which may be used in making an observation.

Estimate of the value of a property determined through a known procedure.

property <General Feature Model>

Facet or attribute of an object referenced by a name.

EXAMPLE: Abby's car has the color red, where "color red" is a property of the car instance.

The real-world domain feature of interest, such as a groundwater body, aquifer, river, lake, or sea, which is observed.

Feature, such as a station, transect, section or specimen, which is involved in making observations of a domain feature.

NOTE: A sampling feature is purely an artefact of the observational strategy, and has no significance independent of the observational campaign.

XML document containing a collection of schema component definitions and declarations within the same target namespace.

Example Schema components of W3C XML Schema are types, elements, attributes, groups, etc.

NOTE: The W3C XML Schema provides an XML interchange format for schema information. A single schema document provides descriptions of components associated with a single XML namespace, but several documents may describe components in the same schema, i.e. the same target namespace.

Type of observation procedure that provides the estimated value of an observed property at its output.

Note: A sensor uses a combination of physical, chemical or biological means in order to estimate the underlying observed property. At the end of the measuring chain electronic devices often produce signals to be processed.

[OGC SWE Common 2.0, definition 4.5.]

5.

Conventions

5.1 Requirements class

Each normative statement (requirement or recommendation) in this specification is a member of a requirements class. Each requirements class is described in a discrete clause or sub-clause, and summarized using the following template:

Requirements class /req/

Target type [artefact or technology type]

Dependency [identifier for another requirements

Requirement /Recommendation

All requirements in a class must be satisfied. Hence, the requirements class is the unit of re-use and dependency, and the value of a dependency requirement is another

requirements class. All requirements in a dependency must also be satisfied by a

conforming implementation. A requirements class may consist only of dependencies and introduce no new requirements.

All requirements are normative, and each requirement is presented using the following template:

/req/[classM]/[reqN] [Normative statement]

where /req/[classM]/[reqN] identifies the requirement or recommendation. The use of this layout convention allows the normative provisions of this specification to be easily located by implementers.

5.3 Conformance class

Conformance to this specification is possible at a number of levels, specified by conformance classes (Annex A). Each conformance class is summarized using the following template:

Conformance class /conf/

Dependency [identifier for another conformance

Tests [reference to clause(s) containing

All tests in a class must be passed. Each conformance class tests conformance to a set of requirements packaged in a requirements class.

W3C Schema (XSD) and ISO Schematron (SCH) files are considered as part of this specification, although available online only, due to concerns about document size. Many requirements are expressed in a single XSD or SCH file although tests are listed

<title>Test requirement: /req/gwml2-well-xsd/origin_elevation</title> <rule context="gwml2w:GW_Well">

href='http://www.opengis.net/req/gwml2-well/origin_elevation']) = 1">A GW_Well needs at least one origin Elevation</assert>

Each requirements class, requirement and recommendation is identified by a URI. The identifier supports cross-referencing of class membership, dependencies, and links from each conformance test to the requirements tested. In this specification identifiers are expressed as partial URIs or paths, which can be appended to a base URI that identifies the specification as a whole in order to construct a complete URI for identification in an external context.

The URI for each requirements class has the form

http://www.opengis.net/spec/groundwaterml/2.1/req/[classM].

The URI for each requirement or recommendation has the form

http://www.opengis.net/spec/groundwaterml/2.1/req/[classM]/[reqN].

The URI for each conformance class has the form

http://www.opengis.net/spec/groundwaterml/2.1/conf/[classM].

The URI for each conformance test has the form

http://www.opengis.net/spec/groundwaterml/2.1/conf/[classM]/[testN].

5.5 External package abbreviations

Concepts from schemas defined in some other International Standards are designated with names that start with alpha codes as follow:

GF ISO 19109:2005 General Feature Model

GFI ISO 19156:2011 General Feature Model Instances

CV ISO 19123:2005 Schema for Coverage Geometry and Functions

OM ISO 19156:2011 Observations and Measurements

DQ ISO 19157:201X Data Quality

WML2 OGC® WaterML 2.0: Part 1- Timeseries

5.6 Abbreviated terms

In this document the following abbreviations and acronyms are used or introduced:

API Application Program Interface

GeoSciML3.2 GeoScience Mark-up Language version 3.2

GML OGC Geography Mark-up Language

GWML2 Groundwater Markup Language version 2.1 (this specification)

GWML2-Main UML Logical Model of the primary GroundWaterML2

elements (namespace http://www.opengis.net/gwml-main/2.1)

GWML2-Flow UML Logical Model of the elements required to capture groundwater flow (namespace http://www.opengis.net/gwml-flow/2.1)

GWML2-Constituent UML Logical Model of the groundwater fluid body constituents and their relationships (namespace http://www.opengis.net/gwml-constituent/2.1)

GWML2-Well UML Logical Model of the features and properties associated with water well (namespace http://www.opengis.net/gwml-well/2.1)

GWML2-WellConstruction UML Logical Model of the well drilling and construction details (namespace

GWML2-AquiferTest UML Logical Model of the features and properties associated with aquifer test (namespace http://www.opengis.net/gwml-aquifertest/2.1)

ISO International Organization for Standardization

OGC Open Geospatial Consortium

O&M OGC Observations and Measurements Conceptual Model

OMXML Observations and Measurements XML Implementation

SensorML Sensor Model Language

SOS Sensor Observation Service

SWE Sensor Web Enablement

UML Unified Modeling Language

UTC Coordinated Universal Time

URI Universal Resource Identifier

URL Universal Resource Locator

XML Extensible Markup Language

XSD W3C XML Schema Definition Language

5.7 UML notation

The diagrams that appear in this specification, including the GWML2 Conceptual and Logical schemas, are presented using the Unified Modeling Language (UML), in compliance with ISO/IEC 19505-2.

Note: Within the GWML2 conceptual and logical diagrams, the following color scheme

is used to identify packages, except where noted (i.e. Figure 16). This is just for information purposes.

Amber: GWML2 defined within this specification

Green and Purple: from GeoSciML

5.8 Finding requirements and recommendations

identifier. Recommendations are not tested but are assigned URLs and are identified using the ‘Recommendation’ label in the associated requirements table.

Requirements classes are separated into their own clauses, named, and specified

according to inheritance (direct dependencies). The Conformance test classes in the test suite are similarly named to establish an explicit and mnemonic link between

requirements classes and conformance test classes.

6.

Background

6.1 Technical Basis

This specification builds on a number of standards for encoding XML data, including:

฀ GML ISO 19136:2007 (OGC 07-036)

This specification also builds on existing schema, primarily Observations &

Measurements (OMXML) and GeoSciML 3.2. It accomplishes this by (a) extending these schemas with groundwater specializations, (b) referring to a class in these schema in order to type a named property, or (c) using a class from the schemas as one of the two participants in a binary relationship.

6.2 Overview of Observations & Measurements

ISO19156 – Observations and Measurements is a generic GML schema for observations. As shown in Figure 1, it defines an observation as “…an act associated with a discrete time instant or period through which a number, term or other symbol is assigned to a phenomenon. It involves application of a specified procedure, such as a sensor,

instrument, algorithm or process chain. The procedure may be applied in-situ, remotely, or ex-situ with respect to the sampling location. The result of an observation is an estimate of the value of a property of some feature.”

6.3 Sampling features

Sampling features in O&M are defined as a “feature, such as a station, transect, section

or specimen, which is involved in making observations concerning a domain feature.

Figure 1: Observation in O&M.

6.4 Overview of GeoSciML 3.2

GeoSciML is a GML schema for core geological entities including geological units, structures, and earth materials. It is particularly relevant to GWML2 because bodies of rock serve as containers for subsurface water bodies. Such rock bodies possess variable hydrogeologic properties according to their material composition and topological organization. Thus, geological units and earth materials are the key GeoSciML entities required by GWML2.

GeoSciML defines a geological unit as “a body of material in the Earth whose complete and precise extent is inferred to exist (NADM GeologicUnit, Stratigraphic unit in sense of NACSN or International Stratigraphic Code), or a classifier used to characterize parts of the Earth (e.g. lithologic map unit like 'granitic rock' or 'alluvial deposit', surficial units like 'till' or 'old alluvium').

GeoSciML defines an earth material as “naturally occurring substance in the Earth” and intuitively refers to various types of rocks such as sandstone, granite, and gneiss.

+ phenomenonTime :TM_Object + resultTime :TM_Instant + validTime :TM_Period [0..1] + resultQuality :DQ_Element [0..*] + parameter :NamedValue [0..*]

+ name :GenericName + value :Any

G F_PropertyType

7.

Conceptual Model

The GWML2 conceptual model is designed to be technology-neutral, and focused on the semantics of the groundwater domain. It consists of five components, as well as related properties and other entities: hydrogeological units, fluid bodies, voids, fluid flow, and wells. Conceptually, these entities form a simple template for a subsurface water container: the fluid container (a unit or its materials), the fluid itself (fluid body), the spaces in the container occupied by the fluid (void), the flow of fluid within and between containers and their spaces (flow), and the natural and artificial artifacts used to

withdraw, inject, or monitor fluid with respect to a container (wells, springs, monitoring sites).

Well construction details are excluded from the conceptual model, but are included in the logical model for two reasons: (1) thematic, inasmuch as well construction was

considered on the periphery of groundwater science, but important to resource

management, and (2) practical, as it is sufficiently modeled in GWML1 and could thus be directly imported with few changes. This eliminates the need for its re-conceptualization in the GWML2 conceptual model, thereby keeping it parsimonious.

7.1 Hydrogeological Units

These are distinct volumes of earth material that serve as containers for subsurface fluids. The boundaries of a unit are typically discriminated from those of another unit using properties related to the potential or actual ability to contain or move water. The properties can be geological or hydraulic, and typically include influences from the surrounding hydrological environment. More specifically, the conceptual model delineates two types of hydrogeological units, with slightly different orientations: aquifer-related units have boundaries delimited by the hydrogeological properties of the rock body, while groundwater basins have boundaries delimited by distinct flow regimes. Aquifer-related units are subdivided into aquifer systems, which are collections of

aquifers, confining beds, and other aquifer systems. Confining beds are units that impede water flow to surrounding units, and supersede notions such as aquitards, aquicludes, and aquifuges, which are not included herein, as it is difficult to differentiate these in practice.

Several significant properties are typically attributed to hydrogeological units, such as porosity, permeability, and conductivity, but these and others are modeled more accurately here as occurring necessarily concurrent with (dependent on) voids or fluid bodies. For example, porosity, in its various forms, requires both the presence of a unit (container) and its voids, as it is typically defined as the proportion of void volume to total unit volume (i.e. volume of solid material plus voids). Likewise, properties such as hydraulic conductivity and yield require the presence of units and fluid bodies, as they are concerned with the rate of movement of a fluid through a unit. Note that permeability and hydraulic conductivity are differentiated here: permeability refers to intrinsic

necessarily linked with a unit (or system) and possibly a fluid body. Management areas are earth bodies identified for groundwater management purposes and their boundaries can be delineated by social factors, such as policy or regulation, in addition to physical factors related to hydrogeology or hydrology.

7.2 Fluid Bodies

These are distinct bodies of fluid (liquid or gas) that fill the voids in hydrogeological units. Fluid bodies are made of biologic (e.g. organisms), chemical (e.g. solutes), or material constituents (e.g. sediment). While it is expected that the major constituent of a fluid body will be water, the conceptual model allows for other types of major

constituents such as petroleum. Minor constituents are not necessarily fluids, but can be gases, liquids, or solids, and are included in the fluid body in various forms of mixture, such as solution, suspension, emulsion, and precipitates. Fluid bodies can also have other fluid bodies as parts, such as plumes or gas bubbles. Surfaces can be identified on a fluid body, such as a water table, piezometric or potentiometric surface, and some such

surfaces can contain divides, which are lines projected to the fluid surface denoting divergence in the direction of flow systems.

Voids are the spaces inside a unit (e.g. aquifer) or its material (e.g. the sandstone material of an aquifer), and might contain fluid bodies. Voids are differentiated from porosity, in that porosity is a ratio of void volume to total volume of unit plus voids, while voids are the spaces themselves. It is important to conceptually differentiate voids from units and their containers, in order to represent, for example, the volume of fractures, caves, or pores in a particular unit or portion thereof.

Groundwater flow denotes the process by which a fluid enters or exits a container (unit) or its voids, or flows within them. Flow between one container or void and another is named InterFlow, and flow within a container or void is named IntraFlow. Recharge is the flow into a groundwater container or void, and discharge is flow out of a groundwater container or void. The reciprocal source or destination entity can be any appropriate container or void such as a river, lake, pipe, dam, canyon, flood plain, etc. A flow system is then a collection of flows ordered in a sequence from recharge to discharge, such that the flow segments of the system make up a connected flow path from source to

destination. A water budget is a measure of the balance of recharge and discharge valid for a specific time and relative to a specific groundwater feature, such as a basin, aquifer, management area, or well.

body. Monitoring sites are locations where devices are placed to measure various properties of significance to hydrogeology, such as water level, flow rate, water

temperature, or chemical composition, or to take samples. As such, monitoring sites are roles played by other features, for example, water wells or springs.

7.6 Conceptual Model Specification

Figure 2: GWML2 CM - Hydrogeological Unit.

gwDivide: G_Divide [1..*] LeolocUnit

gwUnitDescription: char [1..*] gwUnitMetadata: G_Metadata [1..*]

gwUnitName: char [1..*] gwUnitShape: Geometry

GW_HydrogeoUnit

gwUnitMedia: PorosityType gwUnitRecharge: G_Recharge [1..*]

gwUnitDischarge: G_Discharge [1..*]

gwUnitVulnerability: G_Vulnerability [0..*]

gwUnitProperty: gwUnitPropertyType gwUnitPropertyValue: Any

Figure 3: GWML2 CM - Groundwater Properties.

GL_GeologicUnit GW_HydrogeoUnit

gwUnitMedia: PorosityType gwUnitRecharge: G_Recharge [1..*]

gwUnitDischarge: G_Discharge [1..*]

gwUnitVulnerability: G_Vulnerability [0..*]

gwHydraulicConductivity: Measurement [1..*]

gwTransmissivity: Measurement [1..*] gwtorativity: Measurement [1..*]

gwodyMetadata: G_Metadata [1..*]

gwodyVulnerability: G_Vulnerability [0..*] !ydr"##34%oid

gwVoi&HostMaterial: EarthMaterial [0..*]

gwVoidVolume: Measurement uidBodyroperty

gwodyPropertyValue: Measurement orosity

gwPorosityType: PorosityType gwPorosity: Measurement

gw'ield: Measurement nit%oidroperty

gwPermeability: Measurement [1..*]

gwAreaName: char [1..*] gwAreaDescription: char gwAreaFeature: Feature [1..*]

gwAre*aterudget: Gaterudget [1..*]

gwAre* pecialisedAreaType: pecialise&+oneAreaTypeTerm

gwAreaEnvironmentalDomain: EnvironmentalDomainTypeTerm gwAreaCompetentAuthority: CI_ResponsibleParty [0..*] gwAreaDesignationPeriod: TM_Period

Figure 4: GWML2 CM - Fluid Body.

gw3odyMetadata: G4_Metadata [1..*]

gw3odyQuality: 3odyQualityType [1..*]

gw3odyVulnerability: G4_Vulnerability [0..*]

./0Biol678cConstituent

gw5urfaceMetadata: ObservationMetadata . /0Div ide

gwDivideFlow: G4_Flow5ystem [@C.*] ./012uidBodyEroperty

GW_CIJKtituent

gwConcentration: Measurement gw5tateQ 5tateType

. /0ConstituentXelation

gwConstituentRelationType: ConstituentRelationType gwConstitutionRelationMechanism: MechanismType

Figure 5: GWML2 CM - Groundwater Flow.

GW_[ow

+ gwFlowTime: TemporalType + gwFlowVelocity: Measurement + gwFlowVolumeRate: Measurement + gwFlowPersistence: FlowPersistenceType

+ gwFlowmpration: Geometry [1..*]

+ gwFlowInterfaceFeature: Feature [0..*]

+ gwtudgetRecharge: G]_Recharge [1..*]

+ gwtudgetDischarge: G]_Discharge [1..*]

Figure 6: GWML2 CM - Wells.

gw„ellName: char [0..*] gw„ell †‡ation: Geometry

gw„ellReferenceElevation: Elevation [1..*] gw„ellContributi†ˆ‰one: Geometry gw„ellGeology: Geology †Š‹0..*] gw„ellUnit: G„ŒydrogeoUnit [1..*] gw„ellŽody: G„_FluiŽody [0..*] gw„ellPurpose: „ellPurposeType [1..*] gw„elltatus: „elltatusType

gw„ell„aterUse: „ell„aterUseType [1..*] gw„ellTotal ‘ˆŠ’h: Measurement

gw„ellConstructedDepth: Measurement [0..1] gw„elltatic„aterDepth: Measurement gw„ell“ield: G„Œ“ield

gw„ellConstruction: „ellConstruction gw„ell ”cence: G„Œ ”cence [0..*]

gwiteName: char [0..*] gwit‘ †‡ation: Geometry

gwiteReferenceElevation: Elevation [1..*] gwiteType: iteType

gwpringName: Charactertring [0..*] gwpriˆŠ †‡ation: Geometry

gwpringReferenceElevation: Elevation [1..*] gwpringType: pringType

gwpringPersistence: pringPersistenceType gwpringGeology: G

Œ™eature [0..*] gwpringUnit: G„ŒydrogeoUnit [1..*] gwpriˆŠŽody: G„_FluiŽody [0..*]

gwpringConstruction: pringConstruction [0..1] gwpriˆŠ ”cence: G„Œ ”cence [0..*]

gw ”cenceID: Character tring gwPurpose: Charactertring

7.6.1 DocumentCitation

The class DocumentCitation is abstract, and has no attributes, operations or associations. It serves as a placeholder for legislative and reference documentation for a management area. Legislative documentation refers to the legal instrument or document that required the establishment of the management area. Reference documentation might describe the environmental objectives and measures that are to be undertaken in the management area to protect the environment (a reference to a management or action plan), licensing information, and associated maps.

The 'Legislation References' and 'DocumentCitation' classes from the INSPIRE Generic Conceptual Model are possible candidates for DocumentCitation.

Relation Source Target Description

Association Entity:

Relates legislative and reference

documentation to a management area.

Elevation of a feature in reference to a datum.

Attribute Type and Multiplicity Definition

elevation Geometry Numeric value, coordinate reference system

(CRS), and unit of measure (UoM) for the elevation.

elevationAccuracy PositionalAccuracyType Description of the accuracy of the elevation

elevationMeasure mentMethod

ElevationMeasurement MethodType

Method used to measure the elevation, e.g. GPS, Survey, DEM, etc.

elevationType elevationTypeTerm Type of reference elevation, defined as a feature,

e.g. Top of Casing, Ground, etc.

7.6.3 GL_EarthMaterial

Attribute Type and Multiplicity Definition

gwVoidProperty GW_UnitVoidProperty The porosity or permeability of a particular earth

material that hosts a void.

gwFluidProperty GW_UnitFluidProperty The hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity, or

storativity of an earth material.

7.6.4 GL_GeologicUnit

Conceptually, may represent a body of material in the Earth whose complete and precise extent is inferred to exist (NADM GeologicUnit, Stratigraphic unit in sense of NACSN or International Stratigraphic Code), or a classifier used to characterize parts of the Earth (e.g. lithologic map unit like 'granitic rock' or 'alluvial deposit', surficial units like 'till' or 'old alluvium').

Attribute Type and Multiplicity Definition

gwUnitDescription char [1..*] Description of the unit.

gwUnitMetadata GW_Metadata [1..*] Metadata for the unit .

gwUnitName char [1..*] Name of the unit (common local name or formal

gwUnitShape Geometry The geometry of the unit.

gwUnitThickness Measurement Typical thickness of the unit.

Relation Source Target Description

Generalization Entity:

A hydrogeological unit is a type of geological unit.

gwAquiferType AquiferType Water in an Aquifer is, or is not, under pressure. Based on that, several aquifer types can be distinguished: unconfined, confined, artesian, subartesian, or aquitard (after INSPIRE, 2013).

gwAquiferIsExploi ted

boolean Denotes whether groundwater from the

hydrogeological unit is being exploited by wells or other intakes (after INSPIRE, 2013).

gwAquiferIsMain boolean Denotes whether the unit is primary in an

Aquifer System (after INSPIRE, 2013).

Relation Source Target Description

Association Entity: GW_Aquifer

Relates an aquifer and its confining beds.

Generalization Entity: GW_Aquifer

An aquifer is a type of aquifer-related unit.

7.6.6 GW_AquiferSystem

Aquifer system - a body of permeable and poorly permeable material that functions regionally as a water-yielding unit it comprises two or more permeable beds separated at least locally by confining beds that impede groundwater movement but do not greatly affect the regional hydraulic continuity of the system includes both saturated and unsaturated parts of permeable material (after ASCE, 1987).

Attribute Type and Multiplicity Definition

gwAquiferSystemIs Layered

boolean True if this aquifer / system is a layered system.

Relation Source Target Description

Generalization Entity:

An aquifer system is a type of aquifer-related unit.

Relates an aquifer system with its parts, which can be other systems, aquifers or confining beds.

7.6.7 GW_AquiferUnit

Denotes aquifer-related hydrogeological units: aquifer systems, aquifers, or confining beds.

Relation Source Target Description

Generalization Entity: GW_AquiferUnit

Role: type of hydrogeological unit.

Generalization Entity:

An aquifer system is a type of aquifer-related unit.

Relates an aquifer system with its parts, which can be other systems, aquifers or confining beds.

Generalization Entity:

Generalization Entity: GW_Aquifer

An aquifer is a type of aquifer-related unit.

A large hydrogeologically defined body of ground typically consisting of hydraulically connected hydrogeological units, whose waters are flowing to a common or multiple outlets, and which is delimited by a groundwater divide.

Attribute Type and Multiplicity Definition

gwDivide GW_Divide [1..*] “Line on a water table or piezometric surface on

either side of which the groundwater flow diverges" (IGH0556).

Relation Source Target Description

Generalization Entity: GW_Basin

A basin is a type of hydrogeological unit.

Aggregation Entity: GW_Basin

hydrogeological units and the basins that contain them, in full or part.

7.6.9 GW_BiologicConstituent

Attribute Type and Multiplicity Definition

gwOrganism OrganismType Biological species.

gwState StateType solid Organisms are always solids.

Relation Source Target Description

Generalization Entity:

GW_BiologicConstituen t

A biologic constituent is a type of fluid body constituent. There are 3 types of fluid body constituents: chemical (e.g. arsenic), biologic (e.g. organisms), and material (e.g.

7.6.10 GW_ChemicalConstituent

Characterization of the chemical composition of the fluid body, both natural and man-made.

Attribute Type and Multiplicity Definition

gwChemical ChemicalType Chemical component type, e.g. arsenic.

Relation Source Target Description

Generalization Entity:

GW_ChemicalConstitue nt

A chemical constituent is a type of fluid body

constituent. The 3 types of fluid body constituent are: chemical (e.g. arsenic), biologic ( e.g. organisms), and material (e.g. sediment).

7.6.11 GW_ConfiningBed

gwSpatialConfine ment

SpatialConfinementType Degree of spatial confinement (typically:

"Unconfined-Confined", "Partially Confined").

gwConductivityCo nfinement

ConductivityConfinemen tType

Degree of hydraulic confinement (e.g. aquiclude).

Relation Source Target Description

Association Entity: GW_Aquifer

Relates an aquifer and its confining beds.

Generalization Entity:

A confining bed is a type of aquifer-related unit.

7.6.12 GW_Constituent

General (abstract) entity denoting a material, chemical or biological constituent of a fluid body.

Attribute Type and Multiplicity Definition

gwConcentration Measurement The concentration (with uom) of the constituent

gwState StateType The physical state of the constituent, i.e. solid,

Relation Source Target Description

Association Entity: GW_FluidBody

Relation Source Target Description

AssociationClass Entity: GW_Constituent

A general binary relation between constituents, in which the relation type can be specified in addition to the causal mechanism that caused the

Generalization Entity:

GW_BiologicConstituen

A biologic constituent is a type of fluid body constituent. There are 3 types of fluid body constituents: chemical (e.g. arsenic), biologic (e.g. organisms), and material (e.g.

Generalization Entity:

A chemical constituent is a type of fluid body constituent. There are 3 types of fluid body constituents: chemical (e.g. arsenic), biologic (e.g. organisms), and material (e.g.

Generalization Entity:

GW_MaterialConstituen

A material constituent is a type of fluid body constituent. There are 3 types of fluid body constituents: chemical (e.g. arsenic), biologic (e.g. organisms), and material (e.g.

AssociationClass Entity: GW_FluidBody Entity:

constituents, and specifies the nature of the mixture of the constituent within the body, e.g. solution, suspension.

7.6.13 GW_ConstituentRelation

Relation between fluid body components, typically caused by a specific mechanism, e.g. coating (from adsorption), constitution (from chemical bonding forming a new material), aggregation (from physical bonding, e.g. pressure), containment (from absorption, digestion).

Attribute Type and Multiplicity Definition

gwConstituentRela tionType

ConstituentRelationType Specific type of relation between fluid body

components, e.g. coating, constitution, aggregation, containment.

gwConstitutionRel ationMechanism

MechanismType Mechanisms by which materials (of various

states) come into a relationship, e.g. sorption, precipitation, digestion, excretion, etc.

7.6.14 GW_Discharge

An outflow of fluid from a container such as an aquifer, watershed, pipe.

Relation Source Target Description

Generalization Entity: GW_Discharge

Discharge is a type of interflow in which fluid exits a feature.

“A line on a water table or piezometric surface, on either side of which the groundwater flow diverges" (IGH0556).

Attribute Type and Multiplicity Definition

gwDivideShape Geometry Shape / position of the divide (line, plane or

Attribute Type and Multiplicity Definition

gwDivideFlow GW_FlowSystem [2..*] Flow system on each side of the divide.

Relation Source Target Description

Association Entity: GW_Divide

Relates a fluid body surface to a line on e.g. a water table or

piezometric surface, on either side of which the groundwater flow diverges.

Process by which the fluid enters or exits a hydrogeological unit or a void, or flows within a unit or a void. Can flow from/to other natural or man-made features such as rivers, filtration stations, etc.

Attribute Type and Multiplicity Definition

gwFlowProcess WaterFlowProcess The process causing the flow, e.g.

evapotranspiration, evaporation, transpiration, runoff, baseflow, pumping, infiltration, injection, etc.

gwFlowTime TemporalType Refers to the duration, instant or interval of the

flow (actual time, not observation time). E.g. "yearly", "summer", 񓟹" or 񓟹-2011".

gwFlowVelocity Measurement Measure of water volume per unit of time.

gwFlowVolumeRat e

Measurement Measure of water quantity per time period with

gwFlowPersistenc e

FlowPersistenceType The regularity of flow occurrence, e.g.

ephemeral, intermittent, perennial, seasonal. After

http://inspire.ec.europa.eu/codeList/WaterPersist enceValue/ (INSPIRE, 2013).

Generalization Entity: GW_InterFlow

An interflow is a type of directed flow between two features, e.g. flow between two units.

Generalization Entity: GW_IntraFlow

An intraflow is a type of flow within a single feature, e.g. flow within a unit.

Aggregation Entity: GW_FlowSystem

Relates a flow system to the individual flows that comprise the system. Flows are atomic entities that cannot have parts, but which form parts of flow systems.

7.6.17 GW_FlowSystem

Flow path from recharge to discharge location, through hydrogeological units. It is related to a fluid body, and consists of a collection or aggregation of at least two specific flows, as well as possibly other flow systems.

Attribute Type and Multiplicity Definition

gwFlowPath Geometry [1..*] The path of flow of a fluid through a container.

Relation Source Target Description

Association Entity: GW_FlowSystem

Relates a flow system part to a flow system whole.

Relation Source Target Description

Role: gwFlow to the individual flows

that comprise the system. Flows are atomic entities that cannot have parts, but which form parts of flow systems.

7.6.18 GW_FluidBody

A distinct body of some fluid (liquid, gas) that fills the voids of a container such as an aquifer, system of aquifers, water well, etc. In hydrogeology this body is usually

constituted by groundwater, but the model allows for other types of fillers e.g. petroleum.

Attribute Type and Multiplicity Definition

gwBodyDescriptio n

char [1..*] General description of the fluid body

gwBodyFlow GW_Flow [1..*] Flows associated with the fluid body.

gwBodyMetadata GW_Metadata [1..*] Metadata about the fluid body.

gwBodyQuality BodyQualityType [1..*] Categorical assessment of quality of the fluid

body as a whole: e.g. saline, brackish, fresh, turbide, sulfurous, mixed, . 1000-3000mg/l tds, etc.

A normative quality description is an assessment based upon some guideline edited by a

government or a quality standard.

gwBodyShape Geometry Shape and position of the fluid body.

gwBodyVolume Measurement Description of the volume/quantity of a fluid

present in a container at a certain time.

gwBodyVulnerabil ity

GW_Vulnerability [0..*]

The susceptibility of the fluid body to specific threats such as surface contamination, etc.

Relation Source Target Description

Association Entity: Entity: GW_FluidBody Relates a void and a


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